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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (online), doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-922X, Monthly

Volume 7 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 75), September 25, 2015

Cover Page, Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS  

No.

Titles / Authors /Abstracts

Full Text

No.

1

The Study Of Compressive Strength On Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Cement With Cassava Peel Ash

 

Owolabi, T. A, Popoola O. O and wasiu j.

 

Department of Civil Engineering Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria

 

Abstract: This research work presents the properties concrete using cassava peel ash (CPA) as a partial replacement for cement. Specific gravity, sieve analysis, density test, slump test and cube test were carried out in the concrete laboratory. Concrete cubes were cast, cured and tested at curing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days using 0, 5, 10 15, and 20 percentage replacement levels. The density test showed that CFA has no significant effect on the density of the concrete. The optimum compressive strength of 17.5N/mm2 was obtained at 5% replacement at 28 days of age compared to the control of 23.6 N/mm2. The slump test results show that the workability of the concrete decreased as the CFA content increased. Water binder ratios of 0.55 0.6, 0.65 and 0.75 were used for the concrete mix 1:2:4 with varying percentage of cassava peel ash (CPA) as replacement for cement. Water binder ratio of 0.75 was found to be optimum to produce workable blended concrete. This shows that more water is needed to maintain the same uniformity as the percentage of CPA increases. CPA can be used optimally in concrete work by prolonging the curing age. Therefore, the use of agricultural and industrial wastes as pozzolan cementitious materials in concrete production should be encouraged.

[Owolabi, T.A, Popoola O.O and wasiu j. The Study Of Compressive Strength On Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Cement With Cassava Peel Ash. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):1-4]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.01

 

Keywords: Cassava peel ash, Compressive strength, Concrete, Elemental composition

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1

2

Performance Evaluation Of Snail Shell Powder As Partial Replacement For Unsuitable Soils

 

Owolabi, T.A, Wasiu j, Fatile M.R and Koroye P.

 

Department of Civil Engineering Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria

 

Abstract: The research work analyzed the performance evaluation of snail shell powder as partial replacement for unsuitable soil collected from ABUAD sport field. The particle size analysis shows that the percentage passing number 200BS sieve is 61.88% for the soil sample. When 40% snail shell powder was added to the sample, the percentage passing number 200BS sieve was reduced to 31.25% for the stabilized soil sample. Atterberg limit results show that the soil sample has a liquid limit of 42.9%, plastic limit of 31.0%, a plasticity index of 11.9% and shrinkage limit of 23.6% which make the soil sample to have potential to swell or shrink. The stabilize sample gives a liquid limit of 22.8%, plastic limit of 15.2% plasticity index of 7.6% and shrinkage limit of 11.0%. The natural moisture content for the soil sample is 17.3% then reduces to 5.4% when snail powder was added to the soil sample. The specific gravity of the soil is 2.83% which is reduced to 2.60% after the snail shell powdered was added to it. The soaked CBR value for the soil sample is 24% while the stabilized sample is 45%. The maximum dry density (MDD) for the soil sample is 1.53Mg/m3 while the optimum moisture content (OMC) is 20.76%. The stabilized soil sample gives a MDD of 1.97Mg/m3 and OMC of 17.5%. The unconfined compressive strength qu for the soil sample is 31.27Kpa which shows that the soil is weak. When 40% of snail shell powder was added qu increases to 89.18Kpa. Hence, the soil sample can be classified as A-7 material (clayey soil) while the stabilized soil can be classified as A-2 material (silty or clayey gravel and sand) which is suitable for sub-grade material.

[Owolabi, T.A, Wasiu j., Fatile M.R and Koroye P. Performance Evaluation Of Snail Shell Powder As Partial Replacement For Unsuitable Soils. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):5-12]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.02

 

Keywords: Snail shell powder, unsuitable soils, soil stabilization, Soil laboratory test, Soil classification

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2

3

The Study Of Compressive Strength On Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Cement With Cassava Peel Ash

 

Owolabi, T.A*, Popoola O.O and wasiu j.

 

Department of Civil Engineering Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria

*owolabititilayoabimbola@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This research work presents the properties concrete using cassava peel ash (CPA) as a partial replacement for cement. Specific gravity, sieve analysis, density test, slump test and cube test were carried out in the concrete laboratory. Concrete cubes were cast, cured and tested at curing ages of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days using 0, 5, 10 15, and 20 percentage replacement levels. The density test showed that CFA has no significant effect on the density of the concrete. The optimum compressive strength of 17.5N/mm2 was obtained at 5% replacement at 28 days of age compared to the control of 23.6 N/mm2. The slump test results show that the workability of the concrete decreased as the CFA content increased. Water binder ratios of 0.55 0.6, 0.65 and 0.75 were used for the concrete mix 1:2:4 with varying percentage of cassava peel ash (CPA) as replacement for cement. Water binder ratio of 0.75 was found to be optimum to produce workable blended concrete. This shows that more water is needed to maintain the same uniformity as the percentage of CPA increases. CPA can be used optimally in concrete work by prolonging the curing age. Therefore, the use of agricultural and industrial wastes as pozzolan cementitious materials in concrete production should be encouraged.

[Owolabi, T.A, Popoola O.O and wasiu j. The Study Of Compressive Strength On Concrete With Partial Replacement Of Cement With Cassava Peel Ash. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):13-18]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.03

 

Keywords: Cassava peel ash, Compressive strength, Concrete, Slump test

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3

4

Evaluation Of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes For Morphological Traits Under Rainfed Conditions

 

Muhammad Ali Raza1, Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad2, Zahid Akram1 and Qurban Ali3

 

1. Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Pakistan

2. Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3. Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore Pakistan

Corresponding authors email: hafizahmad90@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Wheat is an important cereal crop and is used as staple food in Pakistan. It is important task for plant breeders to improve the yield and quality of wheat to fulfill the food supply of increasing population of the country. Present study was conducted in the Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, PMAS- Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi to identify potential genotype among thirty different wheat cultivars for yield related traits. The analyses of variance showed significance variations among wheat genotypes for morphological traits under study. From the results of experiment it was concluded that in future the genotypes AUR-809, Lasani-2008, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Bakhar-1, Saleem-2000, ZAM-2004 and GA-2002 may be used by the breeders of Pakistan in wheat improvement programs under rainfed conditions which would help in developing genetically improved new cultivars for higher grain yield.

[Raza MA, Ahmad HM, Akram Z, Ali Q. Evaluation of wheat genotypes for morphological traits under rainfed conditions. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):19-26]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.04

 

Keywords: Wheat, morphological traits, genotypes, yield traits

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4

5

Change the dynamics of dark energy

 

Mohammed Mustafa

 

Hypotheses basic theory

 

Abstract: Created space of a number of endless waves of black power each wave has three dimensions and the fourth dimension is time, which is a connecting line between all waves. Hypothesis II: can not be basic information that are anything to disappear, where dark energy working to save them from being lost in our universe known Whatever the effect of gravity. Hypothesis III: the black power and black art are two sides of the same coin which may turn out to be that the recent dark energy or vice versa.

[Mohammed Mustafa. Change the dynamics of dark energy. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):27-29]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.05

 

Keywords: space; wave; black power; black art; dark energy

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6

Influence of Pre-treatment on Germination Indices of Jatropha- curcas.

 

Daniel, N. and Offor. U.S

 

Department of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of education, Port Harcourt

 

Abstract: This research investigated the influence of pretreatment on germination indices of Jatropha curcas seeds. The seeds were tested for viability for 24hrs, before being planted. The treatment options include coconut water, Hot water, cold water, Hydrogen peroxide, methylated spirit and bleach. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used where each treatment were replicated three times. Indices used to evaluate pre-treatment options include, period of inception, duration of germination and percentage germination. Data were collected on four (4) and eight (8) days respectively. Results showed that treatments with coconut water, recorded highest performance in all the parameter tested; followed by Bleach, Hot water hydrogen peroxide and cold water treatment.

[Daniel, N. and Offor. U.S. Influence of Pre-treatment on Germination Indices of Jatropha- curcas. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):30-32]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.06

 

Key word: Germination, Jatropha curcas, Seed viability and pre-treatment

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6

7

RAMADAN?...(RAMANUJAM “SON”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research focus that the creator of “Cosmo Universe” shall be considered as “Supernatural Person” called by name by author as “RAMANUJAM” Who consider created everything through his “MOTHER JANAKI” (Soul). Mother Janaki shall also be called as “COSMO MOTHER” (Pope). The created universe consider having shape like “TRIPOD” (or) “STANDSTILL SPACE SHIP”.

[M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. RAMADAN?...(RAMANUJAM “SON”). Academ Arena 2015;7(9):33-44]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.07

 

Keywords: Cosmo Universe; Supernatural Person; RAMANUJAM; MOTHER JANAKI (Soul); COSMO MOTHER (Pope); TRIPOD

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7

8

UNIVERSAL HELMET?...(RAMANUJAM “HELMET”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Case study shows that HELMET is considered as a hard or padded “HAT”.  There are various types of Helmet worn by soldiers, policemen, motorcyclists, sports persons and others. The helmet is like HEART of human. Many driving friends VIOLATING the rules of heart during traffic when there is no TRAFFIC POLICE available on the site.

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. UNIVERSAL HELMET?...(RAMANUJAM “HELMET”). Academ Arena 2015;7(9):45-49]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.08

 

Keywords: HELMET; HAT; soldiers; policemen

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8

9

METRO RAIL?...(RAMANUJAM “JOURNEY”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: It is focused that “METRO RAIL” is very much popular across the global nations such as Paris, Singapore, china, etc. London metropolitan railway is the world first underground railway. Besides Paris metro, Metro light rail, US, Metro train,  Melbourne, Aurtralia also become popular. Now in India, Metro Rail System also become popular in TAMIL NADU STATE. Various political party leaders also experiencing “Metro Rail Journey” among public. This scientific research focus that “METRO RAIL” shall be considered closely associated with “Cosmological Evolution”. “Metro Rail” shall mean “Cosmo Journey” performed in “Three Stages” of Nuclear age evolution of    Universal matters. Further for movement of “RAIL” “LOCO” (Locomotive force) is essentially required for moving one state to another stage Journey point.

 [M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. METRO RAIL?...(RAMANUJAM “JOURNEY”). Academ Arena 2015;7(9):50-55]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.09

 

Keywords: METRO RAIL; global nations; Paris; Singapore; China

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9

10

THE WOMAN POPE?...(RAMANUJAM “WORD”)

 

M. Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This scientific research focus that the entire ‘Cosmo universe’ shall be considered ‘created’ by supernatural person called by name by author as ‘RAMANUJAM’ who consider created everything through “MOTHER JANAKI” (Soul).  In proto Indo Europe root word RAMANUJAM, JANAKI shall be called as “APPA”, “PAPPA”.  Appa shall mean “VIRGIN FATHER” (GOD) and pappa shall mean “VIRGIN MOTHER” (POPE). Pope shall be considered as integral part of CREATOR and not considered elected by HUMAN CARDINALS. It is further emphasized by the author that the philosophy of “POPE” shall be considered as “TITLE” concerned with “MOTHER SUPREME” (Female).  In other works “POPE” shall mean “WORD” (soul) composed of three-in-one fundamental particles (Godly Particles) responsible for initial creation of entire matters of universe.

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. THE WOMAN POPE?...(RAMANUJAM “WORD”). Academ Arena 2015;7(9):56-65]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.10

 

Keywords: Cosmo; universe; supernatural; person

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11

从马成金实验到天津港大爆炸预防

 

严河流

 

Recommended: 王德奎 y-tx@163.com

 

摘要:钟圣俊和戴德昌等在分析爆炸发生的过程和次序上即使正确,但用常规化学知识计算难以说明事故爆炸产生的威力和破坏。解密1984马成金实验用极少量的钾、硝基苯、苯酚等混合物,放入加了极少量盐巴的一大碗水中产生完全“燃烧”喷射的原理,2009年量子信息与健康上海论坛召开以来网络论坛公开的原子核层次以下,胶子-夸克海非核衰变型的化学分解组合能隙弱力能源反映的量子色动化学研究阐释,说明也应预防各种因素汇合引起的这类爆炸。

[严河流. 从马成金实验到天津港大爆炸预防. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):66-75]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.11

 

关键词:--苯、胶子-夸克海、弱力能源、量子色动化学

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12

      

 

佚名

 

摘要: 在人的大脑颞顶联合区内真还有一个精神系统灵魂,它是由外部的气流进入中心产生。当气旋流被离心力运动推挤摩擦发热一定速度中便构成球状团去作向心运动了。也就是它有什么气质量,被聚合复制出一颗什么样质量的微粒子,也称物质灵魂系统存放在心脏上。由它来推挤做岀功去驱使血液不停地流动等,再去进化光大父母的灵魂。转化出更多精神文明和物质文明。再说今天有了电脑的摄像头,真实地拍到了一些人的灵魂出窍全真图像,更证明争论几百年有没有灵魂己作实证了。

[佚名. 灵魂之论. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):76-77]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.12

 

关健词: 灵魂  形成  转化

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13

Investigation how and why of the difference in the analysis of the relationship between law and morality

 

Fatemeh Ferdowsi

 

Teacher of Farhangian University

 

Abstract: Jurisprudence and ethics of human and Islamic sciences and knowledge are valuable. In what relationship there was between the two of deep disagreement among Muslim scholars and there are strange. Given that man is Allah's creature sovereign move of Allah if the plan eventually will lead him to happiness and perfection and each of the Islamic sciences somehow the way for this move are actors, specially jurisprudence and ethics that both the holder of the divine law, despite the sharp divisions on contentious questions. The letter seeks to achieve an answer to: (1) How is the relationship between law and ethics from the perspective of different? (2) Why there are different views? The letter with an overview of the subject, purpose, resources, philosophy, law and ethics fundamental similarities and differences intends to investigate why and how this difference.

[Fatemeh Ferdowsi. Investigation how and why of the difference in the analysis of the relationship between law and morality. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):78-81]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.13

 

Key words: Jurisprudence, ethics, respect, discrimination, conflict

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13

14

Study of trait association for the improvement of achene yield in sunflower: An overview

 

Ishrat Ramzan1, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat1, Abid Muhammad Shah2 and Qurban Ali1,3

 

1.  Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan

2.  Department of Agronomy, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Pakistan

3.  Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Corresponding author’s email: ishratramzan35@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Sunflower is an important oilseed crop and one of the important sources of vegetable oil globally. Its fatty acid composition makes it a promising crop for use in industry as well for human consumption. Various approaches have been used to improve the key traits of sunflower. It has the highest potential to bridge a gap between oil production and consumption. By understanding yield and quality traits, it will be easy for breeders to develop selection criteria for the improvement of achene oil and yield. The performance of the breeding material depends upon how a yield component is correlated with yield and how it effects, directly or indirectly on yield. The expression of the particular genes may be changed under different agro-environmental conditions and similarly different genotypes may express differently in the same environment. The present review was written to focus the use of trait association studies to improve crop yield and quality of sunflower. Correlation and path coefficient analysis provide information about positive or negative association of traits. So, it is very helpful to improve achene, oil yield and modified fatty acid composition in sunflower.

[Ramzan I, Sadaqat HA, Shah AM, Ali Q. Study of trait association for the improvement of achene yield in sunflower: A review. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):82-89]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 14. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.14

 

Keywords: sunflower, correlation, path coefficient, achene yield, trait association

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14

15

Effect of Siam weed mulch on ATpase activities of Abelmoshus esculentus in a crude oil contaminated soil.

 

Offor. U. Stephen and Chikordi Agbagwaa

 

Department of Agricultural Science Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Port-Harcourt, Nigeria.

 

Abstract: The effect of Siam weed mulch on chloroplast and mitochondrial ATpase Activity of Abelmoschus esculentus grown in an oil contaminated Soil was investigated. Abelmoschus. esculentus Seeds were planted in cellophane bags with soil polluted with 200ml of crude oil representing 3% pollution level. Siam weed mulch weighing 50g was applied to the cellophane bag polluted with crude oil. Data were collected on two weeks interval and evaluated on ATpase Activities (CAA and MAA) for six times. Results showed that Siam weed mulch significantly enhanced ATpase activities of the chloroplast and mitochondria than in Abelmoschus esculentus planted in non treated soils.

[Offor. U. Stephen and Chikordi Agbagwaa. Effect of Siam weed mulch on ATpase activities of Abelmoshus esculentus in a crude oil contaminated soil. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):90-92]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 15. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.15

 

Keywords: ATpase Activities, Choroplast, mitochondria, Siam weed, oil contamination and growth enhancement.

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16

IbnMuqaffa the Martyr; The victim of Sho’ubism thought; the intellectual and scholar of Arabic and Persian prose

 

1-Morad Ali Valadbeigi,2-Javad Sadoonzade, 3-Valioall Shojaporian

 

1- PhD student of Arabic Language and Literature, Abadan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

2- PhD in Arabic Language and Literature, University Branch, Islamic Azad University of Abadan, Iran

3- PhD in Arabic Language and Literature, Branch, University Branch, Islamic Azad University of Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Ibnal-Muqaffa was originally of Iranian origins, but he completed his education in eloquence sciences particularly in the field of Arabic prose and translated some Pahlavi books into Persian and then into Arabic. Ibnal-Muqaffa was the first and perhaps the only person who adds a truly precious treasure to the Arabic Culture and with no doubt, he has been deemed as the undisputed knight of Arabic prose. The keen interest Ibnal-Muqaffatook in Arabic language and literature lead him as far as to being elected as the elite scribe for the Abbasid and Umayyad viziers [ministers] and Leaders. What is surprising here, is that the very person who has had such devotion toward learning Arabic and has offered many precious and significant services to the Arabic literature particularly in spreading and propagating of writing and translation of Arabic prose, be the first victim of this path. And even more strangely he is known as an atheist and pagan by the historians, regardless of the fact that those who have judged him, such as Jahiz Abdulmalek Asmaei and Ibn Manzoor, were among the supporter and fanatic advocates of the Abbasid and Umayyad Caliphs; who were extremely vindictive and spiteful of the Iranians, particularly towards the supporters of Sho’ubi faction; so that anyone who was Iranian was considered as a Sho’ubi, pagan, atheist and the undisputed enemy of Arabs. Ultimately, with the occurrence of the struggle and fight between the Iranians and the Abbasid and Umayyad Caliphs regarding the noble [superior] race whose consequence was Sho’ubi thought, he [Ibn Muqaffa] was martyred in an unjust and heinous manner for his support of Sho’ubism in this certain period of time.

[Morad Ali Valadbeigi, Javad Sadoonzade, Valioall Shojaporian. IbnMuqaffa the Martyr; The victim of Sho’ubism thought; the intellectual and scholar of Arabic and Persian prose. Academ Arena 2015;7(9):93-101]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 16. doi:10.7537/marsaaj070915.16

 

Keywords: Ibn al-Muqaffa. Sho’ubism. The state of being oppressed. Seeking bias and oppression. Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphs

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 2, 2015. 

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