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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X (print); ISSN 2158-771X (onlione); Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 63),  September 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (Print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-992X

 

For Microsoft Document (doc file): After you open the "Full Text" for each article, change the last 3 characters of the web address from .pdf to .doc (or docx)

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Assessment of Shea Nut Processing Among Rural Households In Fakai Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria

 

Baba M. D., G. Yakubu, J. M. Yelwa and D. B. Senchi

 

Department of Agricultural Extension and Management, Kebbi State College of Agriculture Zuru, Nigeria

Email: musababa108@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This study aimed at assessing Shea nut processing among rural households in Fakai Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and two (102) Shea nut processors. Primary data were collected with aid of interview schedule and data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics. Result revealed that 91.2% of Shea nut processors are mainly females, 49% aged 51 and above years, 73.5% of the processors are married, while 37.3% had no formal education. About 35.3% of the processors are farmers, while majority (60.8%) of the processors had between 16 – 20 years’ experience in Shea nut processing. However, the processing techniques are manual, time consuming, and highly demanding. There are limited market opportunities for the product. Besides, inadequate credit facilities, processing drudgery and inadequate storage facilities were the most severe constraints of the processors. It could be concluded that processing techniques are manual, time consuming, and highly demanding. There are limited market opportunities for the product. It is recommended that Federal Government should curb importation of products of Shea nut/butter origin to stimulate the establishment local industries that will use Shea nut/butter as raw materials. This will lead to mechanisation and commercialisation of the sub-sector. Extension should help locate Shea butter markets and motivate processors to meet specifications.

[Baba M. D., G. Yakubu, J. M. Yelwa and D. B. Senchi. Assessment of Shea Nut Processing Among Rural Households In Fakai Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):1-5]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.01

 

Key words: Shea nut, Processing, Rural, Households, Fakai

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2

THE UNIVERSAL TERRORIST?...   (A New theory on “MARSISM”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil..

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 Abstract: This scientific research article focus that “HUMAN ANCESTOR” shall be considered as “TERRORIST” evolved from “Dark Cloud of Stardust”. The human Ancestor shall be considered as lived in “MARS PLANET” in the early Universe under “Perfect law and order” (kingdom Rule, absolute ideology) under the influence of “Zero hour radiation” environment also called as “J-RADIATION”. It is speculated that the stardust cloud (as stipulated in Big-bang theory) shall be considered as composed of three-in-one ions of Anti-photon, Anti-Electron, Anti-Proton. The supernatural star dust shall also be considered as having “Terrorist Behavior” in the early Universe. It is further speculated that in the “expanding universe” the environmental condition of universe consider consistently changed into three distinguished behavior in three Nuclear ages as described below.

i.   Terrorism environment

ii. Revolutionism environment

iii.           Evolutionism environment.

During the course of time the “Mars populations” do not want to live under “Strict law and order” considered descended to “EARTH PLANET” for more freedom and become “Revolutionist”, “Evolutionist” thereafter. The concept of various Ethnicism, Racism, shall be considered as developed on the Earth Planet subsequently.

“Expanding Universe shall mean consistent variation in environment condition with respect to varied relative position of SUN, EARTH, MOON and varied angle of its rotation on their axis”. Author

[M.Arulmani, B.E.; V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.. THE UNIVERSAL TERRORIST?...   (A New theory on “MARSISM”). Academ Arena 2014;6(9):6-12]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.02

 

Key Words:

a)                 Philosophy of “Terrorism”?...

b)                 Philosophy of “Revolutionism?...

c)                 Philosophy of “Evolutionism”?...

d)                 Philosophy of “Ethnicism”?...

e)                 Philosophy of “Racism”?...

f)                  Philosophy of word “ISM”?...

New definition for terrorism?...

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3

Prevalence of Samonella sp and Shigella sp among Children with Diarrhoea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

1, 2Akingbade OA, 3Okerentugba PO, 4Awoderu OB, 1Shobayo AA

 

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

a.olusola @yahoo.co. uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk; +2348063529234

3Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria; phillip.okerentugba@uniport.edu.ng; +2348033087332

4Immunology unit, Microbiology division. Nigerian Institute of Medical Research

bamiyin@yahoo.com; +2348022117832

 

Abstract: Salmonellosis and Shigellosis continues to be major public health problem worldwide, occurring predominantly in children younger than five years of age in developing countries. A total of 150 stool samples were collected, Salmonella and Shigella were identified using selective media and biochemical tests, and the antibiotic sensitivity patterns were determined. The antibiotic sensitivity was carried out using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. From the results 5(3.33%) were positive for Salmonella sp while 3(2%) were positive for Shigella sp. Only age group ≤ 4 - 5years had Salmonella infections 5(4.3%). Shigella sp was identified among age group ≤ 4 - 5years and age group ≤ 1 – 3 had 1(2.94%). Ceftazidime and gentamycin showed high sensitivity rate to both salmonella and shigella isolates.

[Akingbade OA, Okerentugba PO, Awoderu OB, Shobayo AA. Prevalence of Samonella sp and Shigella sp among Children with Diarrhoea in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):13-16] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.03

 

Keywords: Antibiotic sensitivity, public health, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp

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4

Study the Educational- Cultural Rights of Religious Minorities in Education System of Islamic Republic of Iran

 

Mehrnaz Zemami Amlashi1 *, Zahra Pishgahpour 2, Fateme Jafarinia3

 

1. 2. 3. Ministry of Education, Alborz province, Education Dept. of district 3- Karaj, Iran

 

Abstract: Education in Iran; From the viewpoint of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, freedom of education is considered as an acceptable pre-assumption. In fact, the purpose of the legislators of the constitution was to eradicate illiteracy in the country and to improve public knowledge of people considerably. At the same time, this document has paid particular attention to the principle of education and emphasizes on providing public and free education not only in elementary school, but also to the secondary school; thus, one of the basic duties of the government, in view of clause three of principle three of the constitution, freedom in education and physical education should be provided for all in all levels and the government should facilitate and popularize higher education. Employing the phrase “for all” in clause three of principle three, and “for the entire nation” in thirtieth principle directs minds to the subject that constitution believes in the right of education for all nationals of the company, and does not accept discrimination among the subjects of the country; although, individuals; too, benefit from this advantage as per their talents and merits in various degrees. Therefore; based on this argument, some jurists have stated: “There is no legal restriction in education in terms of age, gender, ideology, beliefs or religious and spiritual beliefs”.

[Mehrnaz Zemami Amlashi, Zahra Pishgahpour, Fateme Jafarinia. Study the Educational- Cultural Rights of Religious Minorities in Education System of Islamic Republic of Iran. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):17-20]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.04

 

Key words: Study the Educational, Cultural Rights, Religious Minorities, Islamic, Iran

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5

“资阳人”与人类上古史大统一

 

玉龙

Recommended by 王德奎

y-tx@163.com

 

Abstract: 1871年刚刚打造成形的德国,想跟英美竞争照明工业优势,几十年间德国一批顶尖物理学家百般努力,都不能解决黑体问题。直到1900年偶然中出现的普朗克,才得以完成。这个高昂的代价,即使后来德国政治几经曲折,换来的是整个民族智慧站到了“量子”高地时代。在真实世界这个难以捉摸的量子概念,发展出的量子力学,如量子遂道扫描显微镜,是一种比电子显微镜放大倍数更大的显微镜,对研究基因组学十分有用。还有激光、核磁共振、核元素分析等常见的应用,对人类学考古也十分有用,已成人类上古史大统一考古用的主流方法。邓小平同志说:“过去也好,今天也好,将来也好,中国必须发展自己的高科技,在世界高科技领域占有一席之地。这些东西反映一个民族的能力,也是一个民族、一个国家兴旺发达的标志。”

[“资阳人”与人类上古史大统一. 玉龙. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):21-32]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.05

 

Keywords: 工业优势; 量子力学; 量子遂道; 扫描显微镜;基因; 激光; 核磁共振; 元素分析; 人类学; 考古; 高科技

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6

Good Laboratory Practices for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): A Overview

 

1Harish Chandra Andola and 2Vijay Khant Purohit

 

1Centre for Aromatic Plants, Selaqui, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

2High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, 246 174 - Uttarakhand, India

 

Summary: High performance liquid chromatography is now one of the most powerful tools in analytical chemistry. It has the ability to separate, identify, and quantitate the compounds that are present in any sample that can be dissolved in a liquid. Today, compounds in trace concentrations as low as parts per trillion [ppt] may easily be identified. HPLC can be, and has been, applied to just about any sample, such as pharmaceuticals, food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, environmental matrices, forensic samples, and industrial chemicals. Nowadays, GLPs are solid standards for government registration and regulatory research facilities. Outside the U.S., OECD GLP is more familiar and has been applied in some other countries [1-2]. It is important that not only proper science must be used in the scientific research but also quality assurance systems should be implemented while we attempt to produce reliable and reproducible data in regulatory research because all of these activities have great impacts on toxicology and the environment. This article discussed the Good Laboratory practices for High performance Liquid Chromatography for precise results and long life of the instruments and its consumable accessories.

[Harish Chandra Andola and Vijay Khant Purohit. Good Laboratory Practices for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): A Overview. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):33-36]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.06

 

Keywords: Laboratory; Practice; High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

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7

On A Characteristic Problem For A Third Order Pseudoparabolic Equation

 

A. Maher 1, Ye. A. Utkina2

 

1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University,71516, Egypt.

a_maher69@yahoo.com

Current Address:

Dep. of Math. ,The Teacher’s  in Makkah, Umm Al-Qura Univ. , Makkah, P.O Box 2064, KSA 

2. Department of Differential Equations, Kazan State University,18 Kremlyovskaya St., Kazan, 420008,

Russia.

 

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the Goursat problem in the class  for a third order  pseudoparabolic equation.  some results and one theorem are given concerning the existence and uniqunce for solving the suggested problem. Our work is considered as a continuation of the results in [3-7].

[A. Maher, Ye. A. Utkina. On A Characteristic Problem For A Third Order Pseudoparabolic Equation. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):37-42]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.07

 

Keywords: Third order pseudoparabolic equation; The Goursat problem.

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8

The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in agricultural development

 

Mohammad Abedi1 and Sharareh Khodamoradi2

 

1Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding author: skhodamoradi2007@yahoo.com

Abstract: Policy makers and service providers have increasingly come to view information and communication technologies (ICT), and particularly the Internet, as an important tool in providing disadvantaged groups and areas with access to information, services and markets that would otherwise be inaccessible. The concept of development of the rural, today, is not just project initiatives and governance; it is much more beyond that. This paper uncovers a whole plethora of ICT emergence as a technology of the new millennium. Against the backdrop of the ongoing ICT boom, this paper makes an attempt towards studying its applications and usage planning process and policy making for the rural communities focusing on how it helps in aligning the key factors and reduce the problems of alienation, fragmentation and dislocation of knowledge.

[Mohammad Abedi and Sharareh Khodamoradi. The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in agricultural development. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):43-48]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.08

 

Keywords information and communication technologies (ICT), agricultural development

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9

Micro-credit and its effect on agricultural development

 

Mina Abarashi

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Email: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The major beneficiaries of micro-credit programs are rural women and low-income groups who use the micro-credits to improve their social and economic status. For the past two decades, micro-credit has been one of the solutions considered in order to expedite investment process and strengthen the financial bases in rural and deprived areas. Empowerment and poverty eradication in deprived communities through improving productivity are all results of micro-credit. Micro-credit has proven its value in development as an effective tool in struggling poverty and hunger. It has the ability to change and improve people’s lives, especially people in need. In micro-credit programs there are some other parts like small saving accounts and deposits; that’s why they are presented as a credit-saving program . The two terms in “micro-credit” refer to tow fundamental concepts that it is dealing with. The first term “micro” refers to inefficiency of classical economists’ development methods. Focus on the term “micro” implies revising the market’s economical recommendation in rural development. Small and micro-scale activities are the ones done within the local markets with goal of providing livelihood for households and with least link to the national and international economy. The second term “credit” refers to rural circumstances and lack of official sources which is a critical problem for them. By designing a micro-credit plan, the system is trying to provide credit sources for poor families and increase efficiency of rural market. In micro-credit system, production is mostly local and industrial, therefore economic surplus in these programs is relatively law.

[Mina Abarashi. Micro-credit and its effect on agricultural development. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):49-52]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.09

 

Keywords: micro-credit, in improving agricultural development

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10

Aerobic Degradation of Paraffin and Olefin Synthetic Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions

 

Okoro Chuma. Conlette

 

Dept. of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Caleb University Imota, Lagos, Nigeria

chuma2k2001@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Aerobic biodegradation of synthetic Paraffins and Olefins in the Gulf of Guinea sediments were monitored over a 120 day period in an indoor benthic chamber basin tests measuring 18 x 30 inches. At each 30 day interval, residual hydrocarbons were measured with gas chromatograph while microbial populations were quantified with the most probable plate number method (MPN). At the end of the 120 day monitoring period, the following % degradation rates were recorded for different hydrocarbon substrates; Linear Olefin (90%), Synthetic Paraffin (82%), and Internal Olefin (86%). The overall degradation sequence showed that the Olefins degraded faster than the Paraffins but both hydrocarbon substrates were readily biodegradable by the indigenous microbial flora of the Gulf of Guinea sediments. This study demonstrated that over 85% of the degradation of Synthetic Paraffins and Olefins on the surface of sediments were carried out by aerobic microorganisms.

[Okoro Chuma. Conlette. Aerobic Degradation of Paraffin and Olefin Synthetic Based Drilling Mud Base Fluids by Gulf of Guinea Sediments under Natural Environmental Conditions. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):53-59]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.10

 

Keywords: Aerobic biodegradation, Synthetic Paraffins, Linear Olefins, Internal Olefins, Gulf of Guinea Sediments.

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11

Education and Training of Master Motahari’s Point of View

 

Fariba Ataei

 

PhD Student in Education and Training Philosophy in Sadredin University of Tajikistan

Email: fraibaataie@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Today, education and training discussion is a reality of modern days. Living in such modern world may be impossible without education and training and without possessing a training system. On the other hand, there is essentially no discussion about education and training principle; but the important is interactions for how and what education, i.e. all thought and training schools focus on how and what education and training provided. All attempts of Master Motahari focused on how interiorize the education and training of Islam’s point of view. Explaining the objective of education and training of Islam’s point of view, analyzing the principles of training and education, recognizing the factors influencing on education and training are the main objectives of this study. Above all describing the properties of Islamic education and training. is another point that will be explain in this paper.

[Fariba Ataei. Education and Training of Master Motahari’s Point of View. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):60-64]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.11

 

Keywords: Education and Training, Morteza Motahari, Principles of Islamic Education

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12

Karyological Analysis of Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cyprinidae), a new cytotype from Dal Lake Srinagar Kashmir, J&K, India

 

A.G. Farooq1*, A. R. Yousuf1 and N.K. Tripathi2.

 

1Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory, Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar-190 006, India

2Animal Cytogenetics Laboratory, Deptt. Of Zoology, University of Jammu, India.

 

Abstract: The karyotypic and cytological characteristics of Rosy barb, Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (cyprinidae) were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes spreads from the anterior kidney following Thorgaard and Disney (1990). The fishes were obtained from the local fishermen and transported live to the Limnology and Fisheries Laboratory of Centre of Research for Development, University of Kashmir. Ten fish were injected intraperitoneally with two doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 4g g-1body weight with a 20-h interval to induce cell division. After 8 h in 20˚C water, the fish were injected intraperitoneally with colchicine 0.05% @ 0.5ml/50g body weight to depress the cell division in the metaphase stage and left for 2-3 h before sacrificing. Kidney and gill epithelia were used for karyotype analysis. The diploid chromosome number of the fish was 2n=50, consisting of 11 pairs of metacentric, 8 pairs of submetacentric and 6 pairs of telocentric chromosomes respectively. Centromeric index, arm ratio and Fundamental Number were determined as 0-50, 1-and 88 respectively. No heteromorphic sex chromosomes were cytologically detected.

[A.G. Farooq, A. R. Yousuf and N.K. Tripathi. Karyological Analysis of Puntius conchonius (Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cyprinidae), a new cytotype from Dal Lake Srinagar Kashmir, J&K, India. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):65-69]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.12

 

Key words: chromosome; Puntius conchonius; Dal Lake; karyotype

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13

Empowering rural women in agricultural activities

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

E-mail: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: by looking at women’s history of economic and social life, we can find that this great group, continuously have played basic role in forming economic condition of country. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. Nowadays, supporting family supervisor women is adopted by universal society, as politic, economic a social concern and nearly all countries applied related approaches, and however these efforts have resulted in failure, in so many cases. paying part of cost of life by government or charities, establishing forums to analyze family supervisor women’s problems, supplying necessary facilities to grow and improve child’s life quality and paying facilities to provide sustainable employment, are among most important approaches to support family supervisor women. Paying credit facilities to access sustainable employment with easy terms at limited time, is one of the most important approaches to support family supervisor women. Because alongside supplying their continues needs, their esteem wouldn’t be marred. Currently, this approach is used at many countries and positive results have emerged.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Empowering rural women in agricultural activities. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):70-74]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.13

 

Keywords: rural women, empowerment

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14

Importance of implementing Adult Teaching Principles

 

Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh

 

Department of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

*Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Concept of adult education in revolutionary countries, is a combination of these two concepts. Changes in these countries due to social, political and cultural revolution, resulting from, literacy and continuing education necessary to find because of the revolution, there is cultural poverty on the other hand the implementation of development plans and the need for skilled personnel are expert. General adult education system based on economic conditions - social and cultural community is different and each specific goals will follow. General objectives of adult education and literacy in two categories is divided into professional education.  It’s your job to listen carefully for teaching moments and take advantage of them. When a student says or does something that triggers a topic on your agenda, be flexible and teach it right then. If that would wreak havoc on your schedule, which is often the case, teach a bit about it rather than saying flat out that they’ll have to wait until later in the program. By then, you may have lost their interest.

[Mohammad Abedi, Ali Badragheh. Importance of implementing Adult Teaching Principles. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):75-79]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 14. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.14

 

 Keywords: adult education, Teaching Principles

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Problems of Financing Community Development Projects in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria.

 

Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke, N. and Emeana, E.M.

 

Department of Agricultural Extension Technology, Federal University Of Technology Owerri.

Email: bankausta@yahoo.com; jesus4allheroes@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems associated with financing community development projects in Obowo Area of Imo state. The specific objectives were to: determine the sources of financing community development projects, identify the commonest projects initiated and executed in the community, describe the roles of these source In financing community development projects, examine the problems of financing community development projects, and to make policy recommendations based on the findings. One hundred and twenty {120} respondents were randomly selected from ten (10) autonomous communities in Obowo Area of Imo state. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Simple statistical tools such as frequency, percentages, and tables, were used in data analysis. Result also shows that the self-help group is the most available source (99.1%) than other sources. The major problems encountered during financing the projects include: Embezzlement of funds, mismanagement of funds, available sources not co-operating, lack of security at the project site, and land – owners demanding much money for compensation. The solutions proffered include: proper management of funds, payment of taxes and rates, creation of more autonomous communities, among others.

[Ukpongson, M.A., Chikaire, J., Nwakwasi, R.N., Ejiogu-Okereke, N. and Emeana, E.M. Problems of Financing Community Development Projects in Obowo Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):80-86]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 15. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.15

 

Key words: Finance, community, project, development, government, Nigeria

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16

经典物理学的几个问题之一 - 伽利略相对性原理

 

李学生 (Li Xuesheng)

 

1922538071@qq.com

 

Abstract: 划分物理学和力学的界限也就把场方程和运动方程加以区分.或许正如前面所指出的那样,既然忽略了离散存在质点和场的相互作用,所以场方程和运动方程都是线性的.在用抽象的理论认证某个质点的时候在力学上就把这个质点看成是一种纯属被动的实体,而力也就施加在它上面,同时又和这个质点本身无关,这也正是解决力学问题的前提.在场论中力场被相应地看成所谓被动的一面,看成是不依赖于场的粒子(即场源)的函数.根据力来确定运动,根据力与坐标的关系确定力是牛顿在《自然哲学的数学原理》中所提出的两个问题.在解决第一个问题时,牛顿依据的是他所阐明的运动公理.同时在《原理》中还解决了另一个问题,确定了把力(引力)和坐标联系起来的函数的形式.如所周知,这是古典物理学的出发点.以后物理学的其他部门就是按牛顿的引力场的式样构成的. 在物理学发展的影响下,当力学把标量也包括到自己的基本概念之中的时候,已知力和初始条件就能决定质点位置的牛顿运动方程将要被另一种方程所取代.

[李学生. 经典物理学的几个问题之一 - 伽利略相对性原理. Academ Arena 2014;6(9):87-90]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 16. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060914.16

 

Key words: Finance, community, project, development, government, Nigeria

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from September 8, 2014. 

All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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