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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

ISSN 1553-992X; Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 61),  July 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (Print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file, doi:10.7537/j.issn.1553-922X

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Case Study: Implementation And Qualities Of Multimedia Technologies In Technical And Engineering Based Instructional Design 

 

Engr. Muhammad Mujtaba Asad1, Dr. Razali Bin Hassan2, Engr. Fahad Sherwani

 

FPTV, Universii Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja Batu Pahat Johor Malaysia

Mujtabaasad11@gmail.com, razalih@uthm.edu.my, fahad.sherwanis@gmail.com.

 

Abstract: Multimedia technologies have potential to produce high quality learning environments which actively engage the learner of technical and engineering or Vocational education, Because in this modern era information technology is involved in every field of life, and with the help of information technology we can easily generate and develop very efficient and effective interactive medias for our learners. Computer based multimedia and teaching techniques are very sufficient for all age group students. In technical and vocational education, Multimedia applications are increasing day by day due to technology involvement in the industries and work place. This paper starts with an overview of the specifications and general characteristics of multimedia in TVE like how multimedia involvement is effective in TVE and how can be used to enhance that process of teaching and learning in technical and vocational subjects and its implications in this modern era of technical and vocational education from different prospective.

[Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Fahad Sherwani. Case Study: Implementation And Qualities Of Multimedia Technologies In Technical And Engineering Based Instructional Design. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):1-4]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.01

 

Keywords: Multimedia/hypermedia Systems, Simulation, Architectures for educational technology system, interactive learning environments.

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2

Production of Biogas from the blend of Poultry Wastes and Pig Slurry

 

* 1Oladeji, J.T., 2Olafimihan, E.O. and 3Itabiyi, O. E

 

1,2,3 Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

*1E-mail of Correspondence Author- research222a@gmail.com

 

Abstract: A small biogas digester was constructed to provide an anaerobic condition for a sample of feedstock prepared from the mixture of poultry waste and pig slurry added with water in a ratio 1:2 to facilitate quick breakdown and digestion of the feedstock for biogas production. The whole biogas set-up was left for a period of 7 weeks, and the gas produced during this period was collected into a rubber tube for further analysis of the gas in order to determine the constituents of the biogas. The result shows that of the main constituent in the biogas is methane (CH4) with the percentage of 67.29% and this was followed by carbon dioxide (CO2) with a composition of 20.74%. Other constituents of the gas are not prominent but exist in traces, which include hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and water vapour with a percentage composition of 9.89% and 2.88% respectively. Traces of nitrogen (N) and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be 0.18 and 0.02% respectively. The study concluded that biogas production took place at mesophillic temperature range of 28-34oC after a minimum retention time of 49 days from microbial digestion of poultry wastes and pig slurry in an anaerobic condition.

[Oladeji, J.T., Olafimihan, E.O. and Itabiyi, O. E. Production of Biogas from the blend of Poultry Wastes and Pig Slurry. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):5-9]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.02

 

Key words- anaerobic digestion; biogas; substrate; digester; poultry waste; pig slurry

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3

Brave and holdness in Alomeiatol Arab (Ashanfari)

 

Mohammad Bostan1, Ahmad Reza Heydarian shahri (Ph.D)2, Zahra Atighy3

 

1. Department of law, IslamAbad Gharb branch, Islamic Azad University, IslamAbad Gharb, Iran

Email: Mbostan40@yahoo.com

2. Department of Arabic Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

3. Department of Teaching language English, Abadan branch, Islamic Azad University, Abadan, Iran

 

Abstract: Human thoughts even in a simple person can be so great and complicated which sometimes with complete simplicity and preliminary play and important role that is difficult to believe. The ignorance age which describes with the qualities of human, animal, brutal and murder, looking, fighting and war are the early and continued habits of that time, at the meantime existence of such thoughts which originate from that age tribal system laws, sometime several delicates points combine with rough regulations which their expression is never without grace; The above mentioned poet (Ashanfari) and other ignorant Arab Poets who are the indicators of that age, address brave and courage with different concepts, so their criteria can be different subject-matters including: Strong intention and overcoming sensual desire, defending one's fellow-creatures, not bothering others, fighting alone, and standing against life's hard and difficult problems, courage and fearless against needs, associating with animals in deserts and caves, using different warfare weapons beside his firm intention, laughing at death and Poverty in their real existence, hospitability and sacrificing all his properties for the sake of them, indicating his anger even with a cry and scream, without sitting with wives and bondswomen, always indicating loyalty towards his tribe, presence in battle field consistently, having excellent aspiration and needless of others. Convincing to the least of living affairs, refusing oppression from anybody even from kings and sultans which caused him to spend years of his life in deserts, but doesn't obey any lord or governor. These were among qualities which Arabs considered as bravery and boldness, in particular Ashanfari. These qualities with unique beauty are entirely in a very short but valuable phrase of Holy prophet's precious saying "Ashjaonas man ghalabahawa".

[Mohammad Bostan, Ahmad Reza Heydarian shahri, Zahra Atighy. Brave and holdness in Alomeiatol Arab (Ashanfari). Academ Arena 2014;6(7):10-16] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.03

 

Key words: war, bravery, patience, sensual desire, Arab pagan state (ignorance) before Mohammad (PBUH)

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4

Exploring the challenge of Iranian Families in the 21st Century

 

Naghmeh kashanchi langroudi (Corresponding author)*

 

1. Department of Ms. educational psychology Teheran-Alzahra University, Iran

 

Abstract: Formation of Iranian family is associated with a legal bond based on a heterosexual, emotional, social and stable relationship and cultural effects But at the present time, and passing from tradition to modernity together with rapid cultural, social and economic changes, Iranian families experience changes and wide challenges, as the purpose of the present study was to examine strategies for reducing or eliminating them. The findings suggest that factors such as sensational conception growth, impatience of families for learning, low capacity in dealing with problems, parenting democracy, religious weakness, loss of interpersonal relations, development and production of drugs into the country's financial problems, and misuse of new media include families of Iranian challenge in this century. This study was a descriptive manner library and field studies to identify the challenges facing Iranian families have been discussed..

[Naghmeh kashanchi langroudi.  Exploring the challenge of Iranian Families in the 21st Century. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):17-21] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.04

 

Key words: family, culture, challenges, family, nuclear family, new injures

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5

Evaluation of Anti-anaemic potential of aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) leaf in iron deficient Rats

 

*Oladiji, A.T., Olatunde, A., Yakubu, M.T. and Oloyede, H.O.B.

 

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

E-mail: temidayooladiji@yahoo.com; Telephone: +234 8033736996

 

Abstract: The effects of administration of aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight on haematological indices (PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH and MCHC) of iron deficient rats were investigated. Thirty six albino rats (51.171.02g) were used for the study. Eight rats were fed on iron-sufficient diets while the remaining twenty eight were made iron deficient by maintaining them on iron-deficient diets. After five weeks of feeding, haematological indices of the iron deficient rats were significantly (p<0.05) reduced compared with rats fed on iron-sufficient diets (Control). The iron deficient rats were then treated with the extract, reference iron drug (FeSO4) and iron-sufficient diets for two weeks. Proximate analysis of the iron-sufficient and iron-deficient diets showed that they were similar except in the amount of iron while proximate analysis of Alchornea laxiflora leaf showed that the leaf contained 3.22% moisture, 11.73% crude fat, 26.06% crude fibre, 7.26% crude protein, 9.13% ash and 42.60 carbohydrate. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, steroids, phlobatannins and saponins. Compared with the control (Iron sufficient group), the extract administration significantly (P<0.05) increase the haematological indices at all doses of the extract. Furthermore, the highest dose of the extract increased haematological indices significantly than the reference iron drug (FeSO4) and iron-sufficient diets. Hence, the extract compares well with the reference iron drug (FeSO4) as well as the iron-sufficient diets in the treatment of iron-deficient anaemia. This is an indication that the aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora leaf has anti-anaemic potential and thus lends credence to its use in folklore medicine in the management of iron deficient-anaemia.

[Oladiji, A.T., Olatunde, A., Yakubu, M.T. and Oloyede, H.O.B. Evaluation of Anti-anaemic potential of aqueous extract of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth) leaf in iron deficient rats. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):22-29]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.05

 

Keywords: Haematological indices; Iron deficiency; Anaemia; Alchornea laxiflora; Haematinic potential

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The rise of mass poverty in Ghana

 

Manouchehr Hosseini 1, Akbar Naqdi Sepahvand 2

 

1. Department of law, Khoramabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoramabad, Iran

2. Department of law, Khoramabad branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoramabad, Iran

 

Abstract: Human material needs of life's realities and religious leaders have always emphasized Brtamyn the needs of its way to encourage people to try to earn income and the solvent have. But according to some traditions, this scenario seems to be alive in the minds of Muslim poverty and it likes to celebrate. This article proof that encourages poverty, material poverty but spiritual poverty to power is extremely divineIslam sees poverty underlie corruption and the corruption of the main goals of Satan and the evil man counts. The first and smallest family of peaks and valleys, leaving behind most of which are influenced by social issues such as class differences and social conditions, unemployment, poverty, and could be so much comfort to a The results in Table upsets family abuse and conflict divorce and separation and in some cases can be In the meantime, not only hurt their parents, who in many cases that the Kvdkannd Off they suffered more serious damage may not occur at the same time represents the Criminal damage in humans makes his long-time patients who have been treated Paper the factors that affect the incidence of crime, crime prevention strategies in providing Track. Many sociologists will not break out of poverty or higher or the decisive factor than other factors should acknowledge the Creator of social deviance. Their view of many factors, including genetic factors, cultural, social, economic, political and event creator Some of these factors are social deviance in certain communities or certain periods of time are more important, But other factors must be replaced.

[Manouchehr Hosseini Akbar Naqdi Sepahvand. The rise of mass poverty in Ghana. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):30-33]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.06

 

Key words: crime, poverty, corruption, cultural

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7

Prophecy and walayat in shah Nemat al-lah vali's Divan

 

Majid Yazdan Panah (PhD) 1, Somaye Haqiqi 2

 

1. Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame noor University, Iran

2. Department of Persian Language and Literature, Payame noor University, Iran

 

Abstract: This research is following the influence on prophecy and walayat on Shah Nemat Al-lah vali and his poetry. The purpose of this research is examination of prophrcy and walayat topics, its definition from the point of view spiritual masters, and its influence on Shah Nemat Al-lah valiyat rank the method of this library. Then topics will be analyzed. The result of this research express the way of reaching to happiness is resorting to prophecy and his revered house hold. Whatever you can resort to prophet and his house hold, you can achieve to greater happiness. Through crossing walayat rank Jomeone can reach to the prophecy rank. Poct by resortirg to prophet and his house hold can achieve to walayat rank.

[Majid Yazdan Panah, Somaye Haqiqi. Prophecy and walayat in shah Nemat al-lah vali's Divan. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):34-38]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.07

 

Key words: prophecy, walayat Shah Nemat Al-lah vali, poerty, gnosis, reve lation

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8

人类文化学提纲

 

陈果仁

 

E-mail: guozi6@hotmail.com

博客:http://blog.sina.com.renzichen

 

Abstract: 人既具物质性又具意识性。构成人体的质子、中子、电子与构成其它物体的质子、中子、电子没有区别。神经系统是专门的意识系统。相对于每个人,其他人的身体和意识都是客观存在。人体是人意识的载体,离开人体,人意识不存在。而人体的存在意义在于其意识性。如果人没有人的意识,人只是一群动物,如果人没有生物意识,人只是一堆石头。人死就是失去意识,死后最终还原为空气与泥土。在一定条件下,空气与泥土又可以转化为生物体的构成物质。人与其它物体的根本区别在于人具有独特的大脑结构及其独特的意识性,即能够进行概念思维和能够以语言表达交流意识,这就是人性。意识无形无踪,意识只能以内省的方式才能被觉察到。

[陈果仁. 人类文化学 Academ Arena 2014;6(7):39-44]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.08

 

Keywords: ; 物质; 意识; 质子; 中子; 电子;神经;客观; 载体;存在;动物; 还原;大脑

 

提示:第一章涉及的知识面较广且理论新颖,读者可以跳过第一章直接进入第二章。

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9

THE   UNIVERSAL LAMP?...

(A New theory on “ e-Fuel”)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The Universe is like a lamp?... YES… YES…YES… The entire Universe consider contains “infinite level” of “ENERGY FUEL” (e-Fuel) exist in three different layers generating energy and mater through Natural process of “OSMOSIS” and “REVERSE OSMOSIS” under varied endothermic, exothermic, entropy environment with different pressure, temperature, density.  Universal lamp = Cosmo + Universe (Author). 

[M.Arulmani, B.E.;. V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE   UNIVERSAL LAMP?...(A New theory on “ e-Fuel”). Academ Arena 2014;6(7):43-49]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.09

 

Key Words:

a)                                 Virgin island

b)                                 Joule

c)                                 e-Fuel

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Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) stem bark extracts: Toxicity and Free radical scavenging activity

 

Taiye R. Fasola1, Ganiyat K. Oloyede2* and Babalola S. Aponjolosun 1

 

1 Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Natural products/Medicinal Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, gk.oloyede@ui.edu.ng/oloyedegk@gmail.com; Telephone: +234 803 562 2238

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

 

Abstract: Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with various physiological and pathological situations. They are capable of damaging DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids which are generally in aerobic organisms. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the lethal dose (LC50) and investigating the effect of solvents of different polarity on free radical scavenging activity of Nigerian specie of Psidium guajava stem bark using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. The crude methanol extract of P. guajava (CMEPG) stem bark was partitioned using hexane (HEFPG), ethyl acetate (EAFPG), butanol (BUFPG) and water (AQFPG). Free radical scavenging activities of CMEPG and the partitioned extracts were tested on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical generated from Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). Their activities were compared with known antioxidant standards; ascorbic acid (ASCAD), butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and alpha-tocopherol (α-TOCO). The highest percentage inhibition was observed in HEFPG (97.39%) and BUFPG (96.50%) at 1.0 mg/ml in the DPPH test. BUFPG also scavenged hydroxyl radical generated from H2O2 better than CMEPG and other extracts. CMEPG had a percentage inhibition of 98.91% which is comparable to α−TOCO having 99.86% inhibition at 0.1 mg/ml. Brine shrimp lethality test was carried out to investigate the toxicity of P. guajava to lower animals and the result revealed that HEFPG was the most toxic with LC50 value of 41.7170 g/ml while AQFPG with LC50 greater than 1,000 was non-toxic. Thus, Psidium guajava grown in Nigeria is a promising antioxidant agent.

 [Fasola TR., Oloyede GK. and Aponjolosun BS. Guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) stem bark extracts: Toxicity and Free radical scavenging activity. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):50-58]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.10

 

Key words: Psidium guajava, polarity, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, Free radicals, toxicity

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补肾降浊祛瘀法在延缓老年慢性肾功能不全中的应用研究

 

汤艳娟, 刘丽英, 黄云, 刘靖

 

黑龙江省大庆市龙南医院中医科

电话:0459-5910125;  手机:13069692870

 

Abstract: 随着我国老年人口的迅速增长,老年人患慢性肾功能不全者亦不断增加,其病情发展迅速,并发症多,死亡率高,而发病年龄多见60岁以上的高龄患者,并多合并高血压、糖尿病肾病等疾病。因为随着年龄的增长,肾脏的细小动脉出现透明样变,而逐渐硬化,尤其当患有高血压病、慢性肾小球肾炎、糖尿病肾病等,可加重肾小管A硬化及肾小球硬化的进展而引起肾功能不全,因此,如何保护好肾脏,延缓老年人肾功能不全的进展,是临床上极为重要的问题,在对老年人慢性肾功能不全的治疗上,西医缺乏理想的疗法,而中医在控制疾病的发展有着很大的优势,笔者运用补肾降浊祛瘀法治疗老年慢性肾功能不全,降低血肌酐和尿素氮,取得满意疗效.

[汤艳娟, 刘丽英, 黄云, 刘靖. 补肾降浊祛瘀法在延缓老年慢性肾功能不全中的应用研究. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):59-60]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.11

 

Keywords:老年人; 患慢性肾功能不全; 并发症; 死亡率; 高龄患者;高血压; 糖尿病; 肾病

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THE   MUSIC RAIN?...

 

(A New theory on “ J-Music”)

 

 

 

 

 

  

M.Arulmani, B.E.

(Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.

(Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

Abstract:SYMPHONY” is the source of Music?...NO… NO… NO…WHITE CLOUDS” (Plasma Cloud) shall be considered as the source of Classical Music rather than symphony emanated from thousands of orchestral metallic Instruments. Symphony shall be considered as organized sounds and not Music. This research article focus that Billions of “Raindrop” emanated from “White clouds considered as Thalam (Tala) composed of three-in-one fundamental ions Photon, Electron, Proton of “J-RADIATION”. This article further focus that the J-Radiation emanated from “White hole” region of universe shall be considered as “SOUL” of MUSIC CLOUDS. In proto Indo Europe language white clouds shall be called as “MUKIL” (Mu-kil).  

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE   MUSIC RAIN?. (A New theory on “ J-Music”). Academ Arena 2014;6(7):61-74]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.12

 

1.       Key Words:

a)          Soul Music

b)          Frog Music

c)           Whistle Music

d)          Parliament Music

e)          Stardom of Music

f)            e-Music

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机械能守恒定律与力学相对性原理关系剖析

 

李学生 (Li Xuesheng)

 

1922538071@qq.com

 

Abstract: 本文通过上面的分析得出,在不引入惯性力的前提下,牛顿定律、功能原理(动能定理)、机械能守恒定律仅适用于绝对时空观下的低速惯性系,对于非惯性系不成立,只能利用惯性系检验力学相对性原理. 由于机械能属于系统,以物体为参照系机械能守恒定律不成立,以地球为参照系机械能守恒定律只能说是近似成立,这样才符合对称性原理和对应原理,以地球为参照系机械能守恒定律不是牛顿定律的直接推论.当一个物体的质量相对于另一个物体的质量非常小,几乎可以忽略时,以较大物体为参照系可以近似利用机械能守恒定律.

[李学生. 机械能守恒定律与力学相对性原理关系剖析. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):75-88]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.13

 

Keywords: 惯性力; 牛顿定律; 功能原理 (动能定理); 机械能守恒定律; 绝对时空观; 低速惯性系; 非惯性系; 参照系

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Buckling of multi wall carbon nanotube cantilevers near graphite sheets using monotone solution method

 

*1 Mohammad Ghalambaz, 2Aminreza Noghrehabadi, 3Amir vosough

 

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezful, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

3 Young researchers club, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr, Iran.

*m.ghalambaz@gmail.com

 

Abstract- In this paper, a monotone positive solution is studied for buckling of a distributed model of multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) cantilever in the vicinity of thin and thick graphite sheets subject to intermolecular forces. In the modeling of intermolecular forces van der Waals forces are taken into account. A hybrid nano-scale continuum model based on Lennard–Jones potential is applied to simulate the intermolecular force-induced deflection of MWCNT. A positive monotone solution base on Green’s function in the form of a nonlinear iterative integral is introduced, to obtain a solution for deflection of MWCNT cantilevers. In order to determine the accuracy of presented method, the results are compared with numerical results of a boundary value method as well as other methods reported in the literature. The results are show the monotone iterative solution is stable and converged to numerical results with a few iterations. The results of present work are useful to prove the stability and convergence of Green’s function to deal with deflection of nano cantilever switches in future works and simplifications.

[Mohammad Ghalambaz, Aminreza Noghrehabadi, Amir vosough. Buckling of multi wall carbon nanotube cantilevers near graphite sheets using monotone solution method. Academ Arena 2014;6(7):89-95]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 14. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060714.14

 

Keywords: Nano; Cantilever; Monotone Solution; Green’s function; van der Waals; MWCNT.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 7/1/2014. 

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