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Science Journal


Academia Arena


ISSN 1553-992X, Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 3 (Cumulated No. 57), March 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (Print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




Limited Use of Project Management Tools and Techniques: Determining and Evaluating the Reasons


Robina Dildar 1, Syed Fida Hussain Shah 2, Tahira Nazir 3, Khalid Zaman 2


1. Deputy Director (P&D), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

2. Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

3 PhD Scholar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia.



Abstract: In today's highly competitive environment, project management (PM) is subject to appropriate usage of project management tools and techniques (PMTT). This study presents the reasons of limited use of project management tools and techniques. Empirical evidences drawn from deductive research method have been used for formulating the appropriate reasoning. The link between the project management practice and project performance has been identified. The analysis shows evaluation of reasons of limited use of a wide variety of PMTT across varying contexts (projects, organizations, etc.). The result of the study reveals that traditional project management tools and techniques are not adequate to address the key concerns of project practitioners facing today because they are working in an environment where uncertainty, technological advances and corporate re-engineering are taking place at fast pace. Moreover, customer satisfaction, complexity management, accelerating schedule, contract management and risk management are among the key issues. Working effectively in this environment necessitating employing and improving use of PMTT along with enhanced skill levels of project managers to survive and thrive. Project management practice is a strategic asset to organizations and should be built though integrating appropriate PM tools and techniques into practice. These tools and techniques should be compatible to the project context.

[Dildar R, Shah SFH, Nazir T, Zaman K. Limited Use of Project Management Tools and Techniques: Determining and Evaluating the Reasons. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):1-11]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.01


Keywords: Project management (PM), Project management tools and techniques (PMTT).

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手机:13337393557, Emailguozi6@hotmail.com


Recommended: Dong Sheng Zhang, zhangds12@hotmail.com


Abstract: 光在任何时候都能向无限远处传播,说明以太场世界无始无终且无边无际。光在任何时候与任何地点都能向任何方向进行传播,说明以太场无时不在且无处不在。光的振幅与波长运动说明光介质即以太场是连续的。本文作者以约50年之研究,在承认所有实验与观察的基础上,对现有的理论进行了全面而且系统的修正。不但以实验证明了以太场是世界的本原,而且以实验说明了世界是怎样演变与进化的。创建了一门包含所有基础学科在内的统一、简洁、自洽的大科学——以太旋子学。

[陈果仁. 场学简介. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):12-21]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.02



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Runoff Estimation of Aralamallige Watershed, Bangalore Using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach


Adhfur Sherwani, Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Khursheed Alam


1. Ph.D Research Scholar, Dept. Environmental Sciences, Bangalore University, India.

2. Ph.D Research Scholar, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

3. Research Scholar, Dept of Chemistry, AMU, India.

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com


Abstract: The area selected for the present study was Aralamallige Watershed in Dodaballapur Taluk, Bangalore Rural District located between 77 25’and 77 35’32.6’’ E longitude and 13 15’ 21.54’’  and 13 23’2.27’’N  Latitude. The catchment comprises of an area of about 138.45 sq.km. Remote sensing provides the base informations on the land use/land cover, soil, drainage and other aspects. GIS softwares were used for database creation and other analysis.Runoff was estimated using soil conservation service(SCS) model and estimated to be 323.54mm, 188.64mm, 78.43mm, 22.27mm, 158.79mm and 42.16mm for the years 2000 and 2005 respectively. The study demonstrated the use of remotely sensed data in conjugation with GIS for better management of natural resources within the watershed.

[Adhfur Sherwani, Mohammad Aneesul Mehmood, Khursheed Alam. Runoff Estimation of Aralamallige Watershed, Bangalore Using Remote Sensing and GIS Approach. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):22-26]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.03


Keywords:  Aralamalige, Watershed, Sensing.

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Instructional Models For Enhancing The Performance Of Students And Workforce During Educational Training


Engr.Muhammad Mujtaba Asad 1, Dr. Razali Bin Hassan 2, Engr.Fahad Sherwani 3


Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor, Malaysia.

Mujtabaasad11@gmail.com, razalih@uthm.edu.my, fahadsherwanis@gmail.com


Abstract: In this paper three main models are disuses in detail and also explain about its implementation in class room management, during lesson planning how instructor can implement these models in the class, by using them how any company can train their workforce for enhancing their skills and performance. Learning theories which are able to explain a specific topic with respect to its subject and context are called as methodologies. Methods can be defined as a combination of a teacher's organized schemes which make learning easy and quick; it includes procedures based on approaches. Techniques are the directions to follow the process in order to ensure learning. Teaching models are responsible to define the methods of teaching and their strategies, which are consequently based on the teaching approaches. Various teaching models have been proposed by many academicians and physiologists, who help the teachers to acquire proper plans to enhance the learning capabilities of the learners and at the same time, allow them to design their course contents and syllabus more efficiently. Form the brief discuss research conclude that these three models are very effective for successful training and instructional design and for enhancing the performance of students and workers in fields and industries.

[Engr.Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan, Engr.Fahad Sherwani. Instructional Models For Enhancing The Performance Of Students And Workforce During Educational Training. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):27-31]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.04


Key Words: Educational Models, Training, workforce, Implementation, Teaching models.

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(A new theory on “Thaimai”)


M.Arulmani, B.E.



V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




Abstract:  This scientific research article focus that the word “Thaimai” shall be considered as a prehistoric Tamil word refers to “Yield” (“E”) and concerned with origin of life and matters in the early universe. The word “THAI-e” shall be considered as the “HEART” of creator (or) GOD. “MAI-e” shall be considered as the “SPIRIT” emitted from the heart. “THAIMAI” shall mean “CREATION”. The spirit shall also be called as “J-RADIATION”. This research further focus that in the early universe all the life and matters shall be considered created initially by the creator and subsequently undergone three major genetic changes called as “Three species of matters” due to growth of different radiation level. Every initially created matter shall be considered like Individual “TEAR DROP” emanated from “THAI-e” and having their own “genetic structure and genetic value”. Every “RAY” emanated from “HEART” shall be considered representing individual “family name” of initially created matters. In prehistoric Tamil HEART shall mean “KAN-MAI”, “KANMANI”. RAY shall mean “E-MAI”. “Nanmai, Theemai, Karumai, Venmai, Ezhimai, Perumai, Varumai, Valimai, Porumai, Poramai, Madamai, Makimai etc. shall be considered as each “TEAR DROP” representing “GENE” of every matter”.  (Author)

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. MOTHERHOOD MEANS DELIVERING CHILD?...(A new theory on “Thaimai”). Academ Arena 2014;6(3):32-47]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.05


2.      Key Words:

a)      Philosophy of                “COSMIC EYE

b)      Philosophy of                ”TEAR DROP

c)       Philosophy of                ”E-MAI

d)      Philosophy of                “AKKI-E FAMILY

e)      Philosophy of                “ALL-E FAMILY

f)        Philosophy of                “3G MOTHER

g)      Philosophy of                “KANNI-e

h)      Philosophy of                “E-LANGUAGE

i)        Philosophy of                “WHITE INK

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Pesticidal plants diversity, status and uses in North Central Nigeria


 Salako Ezekiel Adebayo, Anjorin Samuel Toba*, Omaliko Chukwuemeka Prsper, Oyerinde Abolade.Akeem and Abdullahi Ibrahim Ndaginna.


Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria



Abstract: This study confirmed the pesticidal plant species; the parts used, their distribution and propagation status in the Central Nigeria using the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja as a case study. By employing plant quantitative analysis and plant user value determination, it was established that there were 36 plant species whose parts and products were used by the farmers for protecting their crop and crop produce.  These plants belong to 28 families in which three were Fabaceae and Lamiaceae respectively; and two each were Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Plantaginaceae. Plant species with high local relative importance were christmas berry [Psorospermum ferrugianum L. (0.825)], ordeal tree [(Erythrophleum suaveolens (Gull and Perr) Brenan (0.717)] poison arrow vine, (Strophanthus hispidus DC. (0.75)] and wild yam [Dioscorea burkilliana L.  Roxb.) (0.52)] tuber. Ten of the plants were not only used for pesticidal purposes but sometimes for medicinal formulation. About 71.0% of the pesticidal plants used were found in Kuje, Gwagwalada and Kwali.  Hyptis suaveolens L. had the highest mean occurrence (52.0%) while the leaves of the pesticidal plants were the most mentioned organ in use (24%). One out of every three pesticidal plants was in the wild and sparsely distributed and 26 out of the 36 pesticidal plants were indicated to be difficult to propagate. The need to carry out such surveys in order to obtain inventories is imperative and recording this knowledge before it disappears with rapid urbanization and the aging farmers in Nigeria were seen as urgent. 

[Salako Ezekiel Adebayo, Anjorin Samuel Toba, Omaliko Chukwuemeka Prsper, Oyerinde Abolade.Akeem and Abdullahi Ibrahim Ndaginna. Pesticidal plants diversity, status and uses in North Central Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):48-57]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.06


Keywords: Pesticidal plants, Central Nigeria, Occurrence, Distribution, Propagation status

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(A new theory on “e-politics”)



M.Arulmani, B.E.



V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




Abstract: This scientific research article focus that the entire existence of Cosmo universe and its matters shall be considered as “Creations” rather than “evolution”. All matters   shall be considered as created through “J-RADIATION” emanated from the Heart of creator or  “GOD”.  In prehistoric Tamil, the Heart of God shall be called as “EZHEM” (Thai-e) and acronymically indicated as below. This research further focus that the Prehistoric Tamil based Indian populations (ENDOS) lived in “MARS PLANET” (the first land origin of Universe) shall be considered as expert in Astrophysics, Astronomy and effectively controlled the Environmental pollution.   The principle of control system adopted by them being classified under fundamental “Three Domain” called “IAS”. Each domain shall be considered as composed of billions of “Sub logics” responsible for “Micro management” in each domain system for ensuring overall “Balance” or system symmetry of Pollution free universe.  It is focused that in the early universe the Universe was very symmetric and pollution free and subsequently due to growth of matter, environment pollution started increasing and hence control over particles felt required. “e-politics” shall mean systematic scientific study of characteristics of fundamental particles and control over the matter Generation through three domain. Further in prehistoric time the “ENDOS” shall be considered living under single “Joint family” called “MARS FAMILY”. ‘E-ACHI’ shall be considered as “Ezhem Achi” or “Mother of Mars”. “The Philosophy of Tamil words chularchi, Purachi, Malarchi, Valarchi, Mazhilchi, Thalarchi, Meenachi, Kamachi might be derived from the philosophy of “E-ACHI”. The E-Achi shall also mean radient energy ensuring “Divine and Balanced Rule”. - Author


[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.. E–ACHI, IAS?...(A new theory on “e-politics”). Academ Arena 2014;6(3):58-77]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.07


Key Words:

a)      Philosophy of “WHITE INK”

b)      Philosophy of “WHITE BOX”

c)       Philosophy of “ENDO”             

d)      Philosophy of “INDO”

e)      Philosophy of “ECTO”

f)        Philosophy of “PAL-E”

g)      Philosophy of “IAS”

h)      Philosophy of “E-ACHI”

i)        Philosophy of “E-POLITICS”

j)        Philosophy of “AAN-PAL” (Male)

k)      Philosophy of “PEN-PAL” (Female)

l)        Philosophy of “THAI-PAL” (Infant)

m)    Philosophy of “MU-PAL” (Family)

n)      Philosophy of “PARLIAMENT”

o)      Philosophy of EGG UNIVERSE

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Comparing Traditional and Networks-Based Education Systems on Learning English Language Course in High School First Grade Students


Motahareh Hosseini, Mostafa Zamanian


Ph.D. candidate, Department of Foreign Languages, Qeshm  Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm, Iran

Email: m.hoseini580@gmail.com

Ph.D. Department of Foreign Languages, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

Email: mostafazamanian@yahoo.com


Abstract: The aim of the present study is comparing traditional and networks-based education systems on learning the English language course in high school first grade students. Thus, 340 first grade female students were placed in the two experimental and control groups. English course was trained as lecture method and using information networks to the experimental group and the control group was only trained as lecture method. The experiment lasted for a semester and research tool was a researcher-made test as pre-test and post-test, which was used to evaluate the students learning. Data was evaluated using independent groups t-test. The data was analyzed in the 0.001 alpha levels and two-tailed t. The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference between applying information networks and progress in learning English language course. Furthermore, the results showed that there was a significant difference in the post-test of both control and experimental groups in various sections of the English language course such as writing, reading comprehension, words and phrases meaning, and grammar. The results showed also that there was a significant difference between the difference between pre-test and post-test scores of experimental and control groups and the course components.

[Motahareh Hosseini, Mostafa Zamanian. Comparing Traditional and Networks-Based Education Systems on Learning English Language Course in High School First Grade Students. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):78-83]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.08


Keywords: Teaching, Information Networks, educational achievement, English Languag

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The effect of CALL on EFL Intermediate learners’ achievement and attitude


Farid Ghaemi, Motahareh Hosseini


1. Farzin Ghaemi, PH.D. Assistant professor in TESL/TEFL, Islamic Azad University- Karaj Branch, ghaemi@kian-ac.ir

2. Motahareh Hosseini, PH.D. candidate in TESL/TEFL, Islamic Azad University, Qeshm Branch, m.hoseini580@gmail.com


Abstract: Nowadays computers have become one of the most important teaching tools in universities, schools and institutes. In fact computers brought essential change in educational system. This study examined the effect of computer assisted language learning (CALL) on some EFL learners. Participants in the present study are 90 intermediate students with an age span of 20 to 30 years old. They are studying EFL in the Qeshm International Incubator. Participants' English language proficiency is intermediate as determined by language written tests conducted by the researcher and interview with them. This study was a pretest/posttest experiment/control group design. The questionnaire results revealed statistically significant differences between students who have computer technology training and those who have not in terms of their attitudes toward computers and the use of computer technology resources in language learning. The results also showed the positive effect of CALL in Language Learning Classes.

[Farid Ghaemi, Motahareh Hosseini. The effect of CALL on EFL Intermediate learners’ achievement and attitude. Academ Arena 2014;6(3):84-87]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060314.09


Key words: CALL, attitude, computer technology.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 2/25/2014. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
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