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Science Journal


Academia Arena


ISSN 1553-992X; Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 2 (Cumulated No. 56), February 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (Print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




宇宙微波背景辐射温度Turm = 2.7k的新计算方法




17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.


Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook,com


《前言》。作者在[参考文献1--黑洞宇宙学]中,已经论证了我们宇宙就是一个真正的史瓦西巨无霸宇宙黑洞Cosmo-BH。而大爆炸’标准宇宙模型与我们宇宙作为宇宙黑洞的膨胀演变规律是一致的。因此,我们应该可以按照作者提出的黑洞宇宙新公式和‘大爆炸’标准宇宙模型近似的计算出现在的宇宙微波背景辐射(Microwave background Radiations--MBR)的温度Turm=2.7k

[张洞生. 宇宙微波背景辐射温度Turm = 2.7k的新计算方法. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):1-4]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.01


Keywords: 宇宙; 微波背景辐射; 温度; 计算; 方法

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Microbial contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria


Ogunjobi A.A. 1*, Adekanmbi A.O.1, Ogunbajo A.O.1, Fadare A.D.2


1.               Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2.              Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.



Abstract: Studies were carried out on the microbial contamination and biotreatment of cutting fluid samples collected from nine different metal workshops within Ibadan metropolis. Isolation was done using the pour plate technique while the heavy metal concentration of the cutting fluids was monitored using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) which were used as indices for the biotreatment of the fluids by the bacteria isolates were monitored using different analytical procedures. A total of thirty bacteria were isolated from the cutting fluids samples. They include Bacillus sp, Proteus sp, Staphylococcus sp, Citrobacter sp, Corynebacterium sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter sp, Alcaligenes sp, Flavobacterium sp, Klebsiella sp with Pseudomonas sp being the most prevalent. The highest concentration of Pb was observed in the cutting fluid sample from the Physics Department (7.02g/g), while the sample from Maintenance Department had 1.30g/g Ni. The Zn and Cr level were detected to be highest in the sample from Tat metal workshop with concentration of 0.91g/g and 0.19g/g respectively. The ability of the isolates to treat the fluids (singly or in consortium) was assessed using the TOC and BOD of the cutting fluid after treatment using the bacteria species. The heavy metal concentration was lowered by all the treatment, however the highest reduction of the metal levels was observed in the fluid treated with the consortium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.). The same trend was observed in the TOC and BOD values after treatment with the bacterial isolates. The consortium reduced the TOC of the fresh cutting fluids by 43.80% compared to 39.31% and 31.15% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. respectively. The BOD value of the fresh fluid was reduced by 62.01% using the consortium as against the 51.42% and 41.27% reduction by the singular organism. The BOD and TOC of the spent cutting fluid, in similar vein were reduced effectively by the consortium with percentage reduction of 64.35% and 61.00% respectively. These bacteria can prove to be very effective in the biotreatment of environment contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals.

[Ogunjobi A.A., Adekanmbi A.O., Ogunbajo A.O., Fadare A.D. Microbial contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):5-12]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.02


Key words: cutting fluids, heavy metals, bacteria, BOD, TOC.

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Recommended: 王德奎, y-tx@163.com, and 张洞生 (17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A. 1957年毕业于北航,即现在的北京航空航天大学. Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com)



[倪问. 3D4D打印与人学解放. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):13-54]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.03


关键词:3D打印 人学 藏象 模型模具

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Nature of the crime Adulteration in rights of the Islamic Republic of Iran


Ali badri(M.A) 1, Amir Ahmadi 2 Amin Pahkideh (M.A) 3


1.Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email: Alibadri1022@gmail.com

2.Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com Tel: +989372980096

3 Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email: Pahkideha1364@yahoo.com


Abstract: Falsifying the word means to transform, reshape them, wield, insert, create, lay out, construct and create the Is used depends on the strength of economic relations and so that individuals can and authenticity Posts Documents are available for different purposes or exchanged between them and are used to ensure The more people in a society are undoubtedly enjoy a good security and public peace, they should be provided the best rate Public confidence in the high society and the government will have a stable Sources Would be the imaginary clear relationship As a result of his suggestion that it could actually forge an introduction for subsequent use of false documents Or to commit fraud and so on and so should not be considered a separate offense, except in exceptional circumstances such as counterfeiting currency notes and coins of the heart, the person should be committed only in the form of 'used to "perpetration of fraud or false document As far as possible, tried to scam the world is not accepted in most legal systems Conversely, this system is always important to this offense as a separate charge to strengthen healthy social relationships Although the offense has been emphasized in many cases the cause is raising money among the crimes against the public welfare  Rather than crimes against property, which represents classified according to the non-financial aspects, namely public trust and losses other nonfinancial entities that may be entered into the commission of counterfeiting. Therefore, this mass The problem is that almost every country has gripped countries have imposed heavy penalties for the crime But there lies close to guile, deception and guile have known that it seems to be synonymous with forgery; Regulatory In order to further emphasize the importance of both together, as is using. "Legislator of the subject matter No difference sometimes as a forgery, deception and sometimes the time just as well as counterfeiting as both machines use And the difference between the two is not defined; Then seems to Probability as adulteration with both literary and legal requirements not enough to show a forgery for purpose. "Motive and purpose of my subject to adulteration was convicted of the crime problem is very serious and important fact that gripped most Countries and in severe injuries to the body of the crime, causing disruption in the economy and general welfare of the country.

[Ali badri, Amir Ahmadi, Amin Pahkideh. Nature of the crime Adulteration in rights of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):55-61]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.04


Key words: crime, Adulteration, rights, Islamic Republic, Iran.

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Review the role of divorce the children of delinquency


Heshmatollah  Falahat Pisheh (PhD) (Corresponding author)* 1 Amir Ahmadi 2 Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A)3


1. Department of Political Science, University professor, Allameh Tabatabaee University, Iran

Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th.&  8th.terms of Legislature). Email:drfalahatpisheh@yahoo.com, Tel:+989121473148

2. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: Amir.ahmadiy91@gmail.com; Tel: +989372980096

3. Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran

Email: MahshidMahtabi@yahoo.com


Abstract: When a disease is generally considered the entire material and spiritual efforts to combat and prevent the b is used to reduce the amount of losses and possibly the root of the disease is contrary to all the divorce Patients It is the plague of divorce. Divorce is a big problem in our world today is global and not limited to a particular country or countries and any age, such as age and family risk of adverse effects resulting from the dissolution of the Association has not of any age Like this age man with virtually no risk of adverse effects resulting from it. Legislators and lawyers, psychologists each with devices that is available to try and stable Foundation Farad marriages conviction to steadier noted the have a divorce Family and tear and definite direct impact on criminal behavior in youth Separation of the parents, especially the mother, causing an inability to maintain a healthy emotional and correct at the time of puberty the present paper examines the issue of divorce and its consequences, and hopefully debate question of divorce and its consequences, especially in this children delinquency cause more families to think about this problem and, if possible, in favor of their demands and social damage than they do over their children, to avoid.

[Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh, Amir Ahmadi, Mahshid Mahtabi. Review the role of divorce the children of delinquency. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):62-65]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.05


Key words: Divorce, Delinquency, Review, Children.

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The history of the drug contraband in the legal issues


Parysa Siamie Tekmedash1, *, Ahmad Reza Rafiei (Ph.D.) 2


1.Islamic Azad University, Isfahan science Research Branch

E mail: parysiamie@gmail.com

2.Department of Law, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan (Isfahan) Branch

E mail: a.rafie@khuisf.ac.ir


Abstract: Our country has been involved with the drug problem due to its geographical location. The drug smugglers have abused from our country for their criminal activities in the internal consumption or in transferring the primary material from the countries of South East Asia to Europe. Therefore it is essential that the legal struggle to deal with these issues. In this study, we survey the meanings and the concepts of the important words such as the classification of the drugs, the history, the legislative process, the regulatory process for drug contraband and the review laws passed of this subject. Drug struggle has a short life, so it is new and open and discouraging shouldn’t make us disappointed to destroy this destructive poison.

[Parysa Siamie Tekmedash, Ahmad Reza Rafiei. The history of the drug contraband in the legal issues. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):66-69]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.06


Key words: The drug, the contraband, addiction, the punishment, history.

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Recommended: 王德奎, y-tx@163.com, and 张洞生 (17 Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A. 1957年毕业于北航,即现在的北京航空航天大学. Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com)


Abstract: 思考一下20世纪理论物理中是不是存在更大的结构性问题,理论错误是不是开始得更早,不是始于1974年而是1905年,则将是物理学界之大幸,科学界之大幸。”我只想说,理论的错误始于1687,始于《自然哲学的数学原理》。刘成松先生还说:“顺便提一下,牛顿的万有引力理论模型与真实的宇宙行星运动状态不符。太阳系中八大行星都是同向共面公转,而根据牛顿的万有引力理论模型,行星根本就不需要是这种运动状态。行星可以围绕恒星在任何方向上公转,恒星系应该是一个球体而不应该是一个平面,这种现象只有我的理论能够解释,我已经用我的理论证明,我相信将来天文学家会像当年支持艾萨克•牛顿万有引力理论一样的支持我的新理论”。美国科学家王令隽教授能否带出“神人”倍出呢?我们来看发生在2014年初春的故事。王令隽说光子的质量等于零,按照经典的牛顿理论,质量等于零的“粒子”所受的万有引力是等于零的。其次,光是可见频谱段的电磁波,经典电磁作用力和万有引力是相互独立的两个基本作用力,它不服从万有引力定律,光不存在逃离引力的问题。因此,即使存在经典意义上的“黑洞”,光子也是不受万有引力约束的,所以,霍金所说的“在经典理论中物质无法从黑洞中逃脱”是不准确的。

[倪问. 评王令隽的《有感于霍金认错》----一个美国科学家的悲剧. Academ Arena 2014;6(2):70-74]. (ISSN 1553-992X). 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.07


Keywords: 理论物理; 科学; 自然; 哲学; 数学; 牛顿; 万有引力; 宇宙; 行星; 霍金

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(A new theory on Radiation Balance)



M. Arulmani, B.E.



V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.




Abstract: This scientific research focus that the Twinkling Morning Star in the sky shall be considered as the 3rd generation star.  But the MEGA STAR” shall be considered as the 1st Star originated in the Universe.  The first star of Universe shall also be called as “WHITE STAR”.   In Prehistoric Tamil the white star shall be called as “ATHI VELLI”. The morning star shall be called as VIDI VELLLI.

[M. Arulmani, B.E., V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. STAR TWINKLES!? (A new theory on Radiation Balance). Academ Arena 2014;6(2):75-93]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060214.08


Key Words:

a)     Philosophy of  “Cosmo Super star”.

b)     Philosophy of “Origin of Universe”.

c)     Philosophy of “Evolution of Universe”.

d)     Philosophy of “Radiation Logo”.

e)     Philosophy of “Radiation growth”.

f)       Philosophy of “Void Universe”.

g)     Philosophy of “Ethnic galaxy”.

h)    Philosophy of  “White Budget”.

i)       Philosophy of “Dark Assets”.

j)       10)Philosophy of “Expanding Universe”.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 2/1/2014. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
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