Volume 6 - Number 2
(Cumulated No. 56), February 25, 2014
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17 Pontiac Road,
West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.
2014;6(2):1-4]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
Microbial contamination and bacterial treatment of cutting
fluids from selected metal workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria
Ogunjobi A.A. 1*,
Adekanmbi A.O.1, Ogunbajo A.O.1, Fadare
Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology
Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of
Studies were carried out on the microbial contamination and
biotreatment of cutting fluid samples collected from nine
different metal workshops within Ibadan metropolis. Isolation
was done using the pour plate technique while the heavy metal
concentration of the cutting fluids was monitored using the
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Biochemical Oxygen
Demand (BOD) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) which were used as
indices for the biotreatment of the fluids by the bacteria
isolates were monitored using different analytical procedures. A
total of thirty bacteria were isolated from the cutting fluids
samples. They include Bacillus sp, Proteus sp,
Staphylococcus sp, Citrobacter sp, Corynebacterium
sp, Enterobacter sp, Acinetobacter sp,
Alcaligenes sp, Flavobacterium sp, Klebsiella
sp with Pseudomonas sp being the most prevalent. The
highest concentration of Pb was observed in the cutting fluid
sample from the Physics Department (7.02µg/g), while the sample
from Maintenance Department had 1.30µg/g Ni. The Zn and Cr level
were detected to be highest in the sample from Tat metal
workshop with concentration of 0.91µg/g and 0.19µg/g
respectively. The ability of the isolates to treat the fluids
(singly or in consortium) was assessed using the TOC and BOD of
the cutting fluid after treatment using the bacteria species.
The heavy metal concentration was lowered by all the treatment,
however the highest reduction of the metal levels was observed
in the fluid treated with the consortium (Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Bacillus sp.). The same trend was
observed in the TOC and BOD values after treatment with the
bacterial isolates. The consortium reduced the TOC of the fresh
cutting fluids by 43.80% compared to 39.31% and 31.15% by
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. respectively.
The BOD value of the fresh fluid was reduced by 62.01% using the
consortium as against the 51.42% and 41.27% reduction by the
singular organism. The BOD and TOC of the spent cutting fluid,
in similar vein were reduced effectively by the consortium with
percentage reduction of 64.35% and 61.00% respectively. These
bacteria can prove to be very effective in the biotreatment of
environment contaminated with pollutants especially heavy
[Ogunjobi A.A., Adekanmbi A.O.,
Ogunbajo A.O., Fadare A.D. Microbial contamination and
bacterial treatment of cutting fluids from selected metal
workshops in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Academ Arena 2014;6(2):5-12]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
heavy metals, bacteria, BOD, TOC.
Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A.
2014;6(2):13-54]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
of the Islamic Republic
badri(M.A) 1, Amir Ahmadi 2
Pahkideh (M.A) 3
of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email:
of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email:
of law, Payame noor University, Iran Email:
Abstract: Falsifying the word
means to transform, reshape them, wield, insert, create, lay
out, construct and create the Is used depends on the strength of
economic relations and so that individuals can and authenticity
Posts Documents are available for different purposes or
exchanged between them and are used to ensure The more people in
a society are undoubtedly enjoy a good security and public
peace, they should be provided the best rate Public confidence
in the high society and the government will have a stable
imaginary clear relationship As a
result of his suggestion that it could actually forge an
introduction for subsequent use of false documents Or to commit
fraud and so on and so should not be considered a separate
offense, except in exceptional circumstances such as
counterfeiting currency notes and coins of the heart, the person
should be committed only in the form of 'used to "perpetration
of fraud or false document As far as possible, tried to scam the
world is not accepted in most legal systems Conversely, this
system is always important to this offense as a separate charge
to strengthen healthy social relationships Although the offense
has been emphasized in many cases the cause is raising money
among the crimes against the public welfare Rather than crimes
against property, which represents classified according to the
non-financial aspects, namely public trust and
losses other nonfinancial entities that may be entered
into the commission of counterfeiting. Therefore, this mass The
problem is that almost every country has gripped countries have
imposed heavy penalties for the crime But there lies close to
guile, deception and guile have known that it seems to be
synonymous with forgery; Regulatory In order to further
emphasize the importance of both together, as is using.
"Legislator of the subject matter No difference sometimes as a
forgery, deception and sometimes the time just as well as
counterfeiting as both machines use And the difference between
the two is not defined; Then seems to
Probability as adulteration with both literary and legal
requirements not enough to show a forgery for purpose. "Motive
and purpose of my subject to adulteration was convicted of the
crime problem is very serious and important fact that gripped
most Countries and in severe injuries to the body of the crime,
causing disruption in the economy and general welfare of the
badri, Amir Ahmadi, Amin
Nature of the crime
of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Academ Arena 2014;6(2):55-61]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
Islamic Republic, Iran.
the role of divorce
the children of delinquency
Heshmatollah Falahat Pisheh
(PhD) (Corresponding author)* 1 Amir Ahmadi
2 Mahshid Mahtabi (M.A)3
Political Science, University professor, Allameh Tabatabaee
Head of Sub-Committee of Foreign
Relations at Iranian Parliament (7th.& 8th.terms of
Department of law, Payame noor
Department of law, Payame noor University, Iran
Abstract: When a
disease is generally considered the entire material and
spiritual efforts to combat and prevent the b is used to reduce
the amount of losses and possibly the root of
the disease is contrary to all the divorce Patients It is the
plague of divorce. Divorce is a big problem in our world today
is global and not limited to a particular country or countries
and any age, such as age and family risk of adverse effects
resulting from the dissolution of the Association has not of any
age Like this age man with virtually no risk of adverse effects
resulting from it. Legislators and lawyers, psychologists each
with devices that is available to try and stable
marriages conviction to steadier noted the have a divorce Family
and tear and definite direct impact on criminal behavior in
youth Separation of the parents, especially the mother, causing
an inability to maintain a healthy emotional and correct at the
time of puberty the present paper examines the issue of divorce
and its consequences, and hopefully debate question of divorce
and its consequences, especially in this children delinquency
cause more families to think about this problem and, if
possible, in favor of their demands and social damage than they
do over their children, to avoid.
Falahat Pisheh, Amir Ahmadi, Mahshid Mahtabi.
Review the role of
divorce the children
Academ Arena 2014;6(2):62-65]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
The history of the drug
contraband in the legal issues
Parysa Siamie Tekmedash1, *,
Azad University, Isfahan science Research Branch
2.Department of Law, Islamic Azad
University Khorasgan (Isfahan)
Our country has been involved
with the drug problem due to its geographical location. The drug
smugglers have abused from our country for their criminal
activities in the internal consumption or in transferring the
primary material from the countries of South East Asia to
Europe. Therefore it is essential that the legal struggle to
deal with these issues. In this study, we survey the meanings
and the concepts of the important words such as the
classification of the drugs, the history, the legislative
process, the regulatory process for drug contraband and the
review laws passed of this subject. Drug struggle has a short
life, so it is new and open and discouraging shouldn’t make us
disappointed to destroy this destructive poison.
Siamie Tekmedash, Ahmad
The history of the drug contraband in the legal issues.
Academ Arena 2014;6(2):66-69]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
Key words: The drug, the
contraband, addiction, the punishment, history.
Pontiac Road, West Hartford, CT 06117-2129, U.S.A. 1957年毕业于北航，即现在的北京航空航天大学.
2014;6(2):70-74]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
new theory on Radiation Balance)
This scientific research focus that the Twinkling Morning
Star in the sky shall be considered as the 3rd
generation star. But the MEGA STAR” shall be considered
as the 1st Star originated in the Universe.
The first star of Universe shall also be called as “WHITE
STAR”. In Prehistoric Tamil the white star shall be called
as “ATHI VELLI”. The morning star shall be called as
[M. Arulmani, B.E.,
V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil.
(A new theory
on Radiation Balance).
2014;6(2):75-93]. (ISSN 1553-992X).
Philosophy of “Cosmo Super star”.
Philosophy of “Origin of Universe”.
Philosophy of “Evolution of Universe”.
Philosophy of “Radiation Logo”.
Philosophy of “Radiation growth”.
Philosophy of “Void Universe”.
Philosophy of “Ethnic galaxy”.
Philosophy of “White Budget”.
Philosophy of “Dark Assets”.
10)Philosophy of “Expanding Universe”.
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