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Science Journal


Academia Arena


ISSN 1553-992X; Monthly

Volume 6 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 55), January 25, 2014

Cover Page, Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




Seismic performance evaluation of steel knee-braced moment frames


Bahman Farokhi1, Alireza Bazvand2


1Student, ph.d of civil engineering, university of malayer , iran (corresponding Author)


Abstract: One of the earthquake lateral-force-resisting systems are steel moment frames which depending on their design, have good behavior in terms of ductility but limitations in terms of stiffness and displacements control. Recently a system is introduced by adding knee members to the conventional moment frame system in front of the flexural joints which acts as structural fuses and improves seismic behavior of the moment frame that is known as knee-braced moment frame. In this study, the seismic behavior of a conventional steel moment frame with knee braces is investigated by using dynamic time history analysis and nonlinear static analysis for three models of 3, 6 and 10 stories with different bay numbers. Results show that the overall overstrength factors are different from what the regulations have prescribed for moment frames. By comparing the behavior factor, stiffness and strength of the conventional moment frames with knee-braced moment frames and according to their improvements it is clear that this system can be a good alternative for the intermediate moment frames.

[Bahman Farokhi, Alireza Bazvand. Seismic performance evaluation of steel knee-braced moment frames. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):1-8]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.01


Keyword: Steel moment frame, knee brace, time history analysis, over strength factors, nonlinear static analysis, behavior factor.

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Effect of Variable Rate of Poultry Manure on the Growth and Yield of Pepper (Capsicum annum) in South Western Nigeria


1*Adesina J. M., 2Sanni K. O., 3Afolabi L. A. and 4Eleduma A. F.


1Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Crop Production and Horticultural Technology, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. 3Dean’s Office Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 4Department of Agricultural Technology, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

* mobolade72@gmail.com, Tel: +2348050204488


Abstract: A trial was carried out in 2010 rainy season to study the effects of different levels of poultry manure (PM) at the rates of 0, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 ton/ ha-1 on growth and yield of Capsicum annum, in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Pepper growth and fruit yield were assessed and subjected to Analysis of Variance. The growth parameters such as plant height, leaf area and number of leaves showed increasing response to all the treatments as the rates increased. The study revealed that growth and yield of pepper fruit in the south western Nigeria could significantly (P<0.05) be improved by the application of PM at 3.0 tons/ ha-1.

[ Adesina J. M.,  Sanni K. O.,  Afolabi L. A. and  Eleduma A. F. Effect of Variable Rate of Poultry Manure on the Growth and Yield of Pepper (Capsicum annum) in South Western Nigeria. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):9-13]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.02


Keywords: assessed, fruit yield, growth parameter, improved, poultry manure.

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Perceived Social Benefits And Challenges Of Sports Innigerian Universities: University Of Abuja As A Case


BisallahHashim Ibrahim


Computer Department, University of Abuja

Email: yanmata@yahoo.com


Abstract: Sports have been seen as parts of means through which people of different categories seek for healthy living and mental alertness for various activities. Apart from this benefit, sports have also been adjudged as potent tool for promotion of unity among schools (from elementary to university levels)and maintenance of peace and development between nations. It is against this backdrop that this research investigates the students’ perceived benefits and challenges of engaging in one sporting activity or the other, using participant development model and theory of planned behaviour.Survey research design was employed for the study. Five hundred and twenty-two students of the University of Abuja were sampled. The generated data were analysed through simple and frequency count percentage method with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS IBM 20) software.  The study, among other findings found that sampled students engaged in sporting activities on campus for health improvement, relaxation and fun, physical growth and social relationship purposes, while time factor and inadequate facilities are the reasons for not actively involved in sports.The policy recommendations of the study cut across the need for National Sports Commission (NSC) and National Universities Commission (NUC) to work out modality on the review of existing sport programmes and curriculum in the Nigerian universities so as to ameliorate challenges identified in the study and  consideration of students’ involvement in one sporting activity or the other as part of learning process, especially improving students’ mental alertness that would contribute significantly to their academic successes among others. BisallahHashim Ibrahim Perceived Social Benefits And Challenges Of Sports In Nigerian Universities: University Of Abuja As A Case: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia.

[Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim. Perceived Social Benefits And Challenges Of Sports Innigerian Universities: University Of Abuja As A Case. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):14-21]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.03


Key Words: Nigeria Universities Commission, National Sports Commission, University of Abuja, Benefits, Sports, Games.

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The Responsibility of Islamic Government for Protecting the Rights of the Handicapped


Elham Elhamizadeh (M.A) 1, Mahdi Kiaei (M.A)2, Eslam Babakhani (M.A)3


1Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

2Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

3Department of Religious Jurisprudence and Islamic law, Karaj branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Email: islam457@gmail.com


Abstract: The handicapped are considered some part of the main human capitals of the society and experience and researches have shown that sometimes some people of this group have made basic changes in science, art and politics. Therefore studying their conditions and their undisputed rights is not only a religious duty but also a legal and moral task which makes us to observe it. The constitutional law and Universal Declaration of Human Rights explicitly stated their rights that this itself shows the principle for the equality of the handicapped with normal human beings. The governments also obliged to provide the welfare facilities for them so that they can live with more hope and the issues such as security, the right of selection, the right of employment and etc. are fully observed so that their physical handicap is not considered as finishing their right to live. Both Islam and substantive law of Iran have paid specific attention to the rights of the handicapped and physically disabled people and both of them have reprehended disorganization for not providing specific rights for the handicapped.

[Elham Elhamizadeh, Mahdi Kiaei, Eslam Babakhani. The Responsibility of Islamic Government for Protecting the Rights of the Handicapped. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):22-31]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.04


Key words: The Handicapped, Rights, Verses, Traditions, Laws

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  (A new theory on Passover and Eucharist)


M.Arulmani, B.E.




V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil.



Abstract: In Christian theology “Mother Mary” is considered as an ordinary person and not considered as a Divine element.  Of course in catholic Institution Mary is respected to some extent but in Protestant, Apostolic churches Bishops and other Pastors are saluted and given more weightage than the “Beloved mother”. In this scientific research article it is focused that Mother Mary shall not be neglected in the “Divine plan” of God and shall be considered as “Three – in – one” element in the “Sacramental Journey” and “Redemption Act” of GOD.  It is emphasized that “JESUS” and “MARY” Shall be considered as Two Holy elements of the “YOKE”  connected to the “HEART” of the “FATHER”. This research focused that in Divine plan of God the word “CHRIST” shall be considered as the “FAMILY NAME”. “JESUS CHRIST” shall mean JESUS pertains to “CHRIST FAMILY”. Further it is emphasized that Christ shall be considered as the 3rd generation family in the total plan of God. Adam,   Noah shall be considered as the 1st and 2nd Generation population.  In 3rd generation populations Christ shall be considered as the 1st family composed of Three-in-one Divine element.(1) VIRGIN “FATHER”. (2) VIRGIN “MOTHER”. (3) VIRGIN “SON”.

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. THE VEILED MOTHER?.(A new theory on Passover and Eucharist)Academ Arena 2014;6(1):32-48]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.05


Key Words:

1) Philosophy of Word “JESUS”

2) Philosophy of Word “LORD”

3) Philosophy of Word “FATHER”

4) Philosophy of Word “HOLY SPIRIT”

5) Philosophy of Word “CHRIST”

6) Philosophy of Word “PASS OVER”

7) Philosophy of Word “EUCHARIST”

8) Philosophy of Word “VEIL”

9) Philosophy of Word “AVE”

10) Philosophy of Word “MARY”

11) Philosophy of Word “TABERNACCE”

12) Philosophy of Word “VIRGIN SEED”

13) Philosophy of Word “VIRGIN FAMILY”

14) Philosophy of Word “NEW COVENANT”

15) Philosophy of Word “SON OF MAN”

16) Philosophy of Word “SON OF GOD

17) Philosophy of Word “TEMPLE”

18) Philosophy of Word “CHURCH”

19) Philosophy of Word “LEFT HAND OF GOD”

20) Philosophy of Word “TRIBE”

21) Philosophy of Word “NEW JERUSALEM”

22) Philosophy of Word “J-KIGNDOM”  

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The Characteristics of an Ideal Technical Teacher in This Modern Era


Engr. Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Dr. Razali Bin Hassan.


Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.


Abstract: The characteristic of an ideal and ideal teacher in this modern and advanced era plays a very important role in making the personality of students and also in improving their academic and non-academic skills. A good teacher these days has a lot of pressure and responsibilities. And only those teachers can fulfil their responsibilities that are dedicated, creative, possess natural zeal, and training. In the profession of teaching, competent teachers should have some excellent teaching qualities in order to perform his or her role well. An interview has been conducted with two teachers, who belonged to different educational institutes, and the interviewer put before some questions in front of them during the said interview session to explain the role of a teacher regarding class room organization and management, according to the characteristics of an ideal and perfect teacher in the modern era. After reviewing the answers to my questionnaire, as explained by the interviewees, it may be concluded that, a teacher faces numerous challenges in this modern era of teaching. One of these key issues is the organization and planning of class room management and curriculum. It has been depicted in the response of the interviewees that the class room organizations play a very important role in building the characteristics of students and their personalities, both inside and outside the classrooms. Class room management and organization skills calls for a teacher, who is more than concerned to his profession and the good process of teaching and learning. The helpful attitude of the teachers towards their students help the students to acquire self-confidence and acknowledgment at the same time, consequently motivating them to contribute and learn to and from the learning environment, respectively. In conclusion, the interviewees have been very kind and gracious enough to read and understand the questionnaire provided to them by the interviewer and respond to the presented questions from their good experience and knowledge. All the data for this research is concluded with the help of qualitative research software NVIVO The interviewer came to learn and experience many things during the activity from the teaching experience of these technical teachers.

[Engr. Muhammad Mujtaba Asad, Razali Bin Hassan. The Characteristics of an Ideal Technical Teacher in This Modern Era. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):49-54]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.06


Keyword: Classroom Management, organization, Characteristics, Ideal Teacher, Effective, Quality, Gracious.

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(A New Theory on God and Creation)




Abstract: The philosophy of GOD and HUMAN shall be considered as closely associated and related to “DARK FLAME” and “WHITE FLAME”. The White Flame shall be called as “IMAGE” of Dark Flame and both the flames can’t be separated for ever. All the matters exist (Both organic and Inorganic) in the material universe shall be considered as emanated from Billions of White flame rays and continue to exist under the radiation effect of White flame. It is further focused that every organic and inorganic matter of universe right from planets, Bacteria, Microbes shall be considered as having individual Identity just like the “SIM CARD” of mobile phone system. “Billions of rays emanated from white flame shall mean to represent billions of matters exist in the universe with distinguished SIM number recorded in the Master Memory of God”. -Author

[M. Arulmani, B.E., V. R. Hema Latha, M. A., M. Sc., M. Phil. GOD CREATED HUMAN? (A New Theory on God and Creation). Academ Arena 2014;6(1):55-64]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.07


Key Words: 1) Model Universe, 2) Creation of matter, 3) Three species of human, 4) Philosophy of Evolution 5) End of Universe.

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Prehistoric “J” – Element?..

(A new theory on Mu-Asma matter)




Abstract: In this Scientific Research Article, it is focused that the “first element” evolved in the material universe shall be considered as only “single element”.   This single element shall be hypothetically called as element “J”.   In Pre-historic Tamil language this element shall be called as “CHISU”.   CHISU shall mean “INFANT” or  “Glittering Star” and shall be denoted by single alphabet “J”.   The “J” element is considered originated ever before origin of so called PLASMA matter The newly classified “J” element shall also be called as “MU-ASMA”. Plasma shall mean species matter to Mu-Asma.“It is focused that the matter in the Early Universe shall be considered having three stages Alasma, Muasma, Plasma before gaining regular Molecular structure to the three states of matter SOLID, LIQUID, GAS. White flame or J-Radiation shall be considered as Muasma matter and considered as HEART OF SUPER NATURE. Lightning, light, electricity, fire, electromagnetic radiation, alpha beta gamma radiation, x-ray radiation etc shall be considered as Plasma species to Muasma matter.” - Author

[M.Arulmani, B.E., V.R.Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil. Prehistoric “J” – Element? (A new theory on Mu-Asma matter). Academ Arena 2014;6(1):65-76]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.08


Key Words: 1) Philosophy of Alasma (Al-Asma); 2) Philosophy of Muasma (Mu-Asma); 3) Philosophy of Plasma (Pl-Asma); 4) Philosophy of “Magnetar”; 5) Philosophy of “Mothers Womb, Embryo, Fetus”

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Antioxidant and toxicity screening of extracts obtained from Cyperus esculentus


Ganiyat K. Oloyede*1, Sunday F. Abimbade2 and Charles C. Nwabueze1


1Natural products/Medicinal Chemistry Unit, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Department of Industrial Chemistry, Federal University of Oye Ekiti, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria

E-mail: oloyedegk@gmail.com; Telephone: +234 803 562 2238

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract: Phytochemicals responsible for toxicity and antioxidant activities of extracts obtained from Cyperus esculentus were investigated. Toxicity test was carried out using Brine shrimp lethality test while in vitro antioxidant activity was detetermined by three methods; scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical (DPPH), inhibition of hydroxyl radical and peroxide oxidation by ferric thiocynate method. Secondary plant metabolites responsible for observed activities in Cyperus esculentus are alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and glycosides. Brine shrimp lethality test revealed that hexane extract was toxic while the methanol extract was not toxic with a lethality dose (LC50) greater than 1000 μ/ml. The toxicity results support its local use as an antibiotics/antifungal. Both extracts possessed significant antioxidant activity when compared with antioxidant standards; butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol used in the assay. The %inhibition was between 98.24% and 95.30% at 0.00625 mg/ml for the n - hexane and methanol extracts respectively. The high antioxidant activity of the plant extracts at low concentration shows that it could be very useful for the treatment of ailments resulting from oxidative stress.

[Ganiyat K. Oloyede, Sunday F. Abimbade and Charles C. Nwabueze. Antioxidant and toxicity screening of extracts obtained from Cyperus esculentus. Academ Arena 2014;6(1):77-83]. (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj060114.09


Keywords: Toxicity, antioxidant, Cyperus esculentus, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 1/7/2014. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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