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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 5 - Number 9 (Cumulated No. 51),  September 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Full Text

No.

1

Wind energy potential assessment for the construction of wind farm based on neural networks and fuzzy modeling

 

Gharibdoost, Mohammadreza 1, *, Moradi, Mohammad hasan2, Panahi, Abdolreza3

 

1.        Saveh Islamic Azad University, Master of Electrical Engineering

mr.gharibdoost@yahoo.com

2.        Saveh Islamic Azad University, Professor

mohamadhasan.moradi@yahoo.com

3.        Saveh Islamic Azad University, Professor

abdolreza.panahi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: For using wind energy in a region and converting it into electrical Energy, first the construction of wind farms on that region should be assessed from economical point of view. Also, for assessing the construction of a wind farm from economical point of view and also selection of proper Turbine in a region, we should be able to estimate the potential of annual power produced in that region. In the present paper, some approaches have been suggested based on fuzzy modeling and neural network to estimate the annual power produced by wind turbines and with comparing the accuracy of these methods with the accuracy of conventional methods we will show that the suggested methods can estimate the annual power produced by wind turbine in a better manner, compared to conventional methods. With having the average  of wind speed, the method of Takagi – Sugeno and radial network have a more appropriate performance comparing to other methods and if in addition to the average of wind speed, square and cubic average of wind speed will also be available, radial network will have a more appropriate accuracy comparing to the other applied methods.

[Gharibdoost, Mohammadreza, Moradi, Mohammad hasan, Panahi, Abdolreza. Wind energy potential assessment for the construction of wind farm based on neural networks and fuzzy modeling. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):1-6] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.01

 

Key words: wind turbine, estimation of annual power production, Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy Modeling

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The Derivation of Dirac’s Equation

 

George Gerhab

 

Abstract: By quantizing time and space, I was able to explain matter, its wave, charge and mass; both the electric and gravitational forces and calculate e, me, h and G.. In the universe, time proceeds in ticks of the Plank time = dtp = (Ghc/c5)1/2 = 5.39056 x 10-44 s. The time that we observe and do our measurements, proceeds in ticks of dt = (3/5)dtp = 3.2343 x 10-44 s.  Spacial distance proceeds in steps of cdt = dx for us and dxp = cdtp for the universe. (c = speed of light)  dt = (3/5)dtp was determined by my calculation of the electric charge in a previous (unpublished) paper.  30 and u0 are the permittivity and permeability of free space. The relation dt = (3/5)dtp indicates a phase factor for our time of 53o.  The triangle 3, 4, 5 is the only triangle with integral values for each of its sides and since time proceeds in an integral number of ticks, which cannot be divided, this triangle, involving only the angle 37 and 53 is the only one that nature allows.  Phase factors can only be (besides 0) 37 and 53.  Our time’s phase factor is 53. Since the hypotenuse of this special triangle is 5, it requires 5 ticks of dtp before time can become real and proceed. These 5 ticks represent a cycle of an oscillatory motion. Our time proceeds at dtpcos53 = (3/5)dtp or 3 ticks of dtp. Space-time consists of an ocean of random virtual pairs of points (VP’s), one point travels a time dtp forward in time while the other point travels a time –dtp backward in time. If their time isn’t connected to a 5-tick half cycle, the points quickly (10-44s) lose their time and disappear.  These virtual pairs are random and pop up anywhere, as long as their points are always dx away from each other.

[George Gerhab. The Derivation of Dirac’s Equation. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):7-10] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.02

 

Key words: wave, gravitational forces, calculate e

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Investigation of the effect of market on economic growth of businesses: Case study of agricultural processing industries in Kerman

 

Javidi, Ali

 

Master of Science in Entrepreneurship of Tehran University

alijavidi1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study aims to identify the effect of market on economic growth of businesses in agriculture and processing industries section. In fact, the study is going to investigate that how the effect of economic growth of businesses of agricultural processing section is. The population of the study is the managers of agricultural processing businesses in Kerman. Simple random sampling method has been used, and data gathering tool at this stage was questionnaire. The validity of the study was measured through experts, and the reliability of the questionnaire was approved by using Chronbach Alpha which is obtained 0.82. Mean test and ANOVA test have been used for data analysis to confirm the hypotheses. The results showed that the effect of customers, competitors, and the government on economic growth of agricultural processing businesses in Kerman is significant.

[Javidi, Ali. Investigation of the effect of market on economic growth of businesses: Case study of agricultural processing industries in Kerman. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):11-16] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.03

 

Key words: market, economic growth, business , Agricultural Development.

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4

Evaluation of Selenium and Zinc Levels in Seropositive HIV Individuals in a Tertiary Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria

 

1 Akinjinmi AA, 2,3 Akingbade OA, 4 Okerentugba PO, 4 Okonko IO

 

1Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

E-mail: tundeuluv@yahoo.com, 08060706263

2Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Idi Aba, Abeokuta, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.co.uk, 08063529234

4Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891

 

Abstract: Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are the key trace elements which serve as antioxidants, and play a role in HIV disease progression. This study was designed to evaluate serum levels of selenium and zinc in HIV seropositive patients with those of the sex and aged match healthy subjects. Ten milliliters (mL) of fasting blood sample were collected from the participants. Serum level of selenium and zinc were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption. When compared with the healthy control group, the serum level of selenium in the human immunodeficiency virus infected subjects were significantly lower while the Zinc serum level were significantly higher. HIV seropositive patients, who were on combination therapies showed significantly (P<0.05) high Zn serum level compared to those who were not on any form of antiviral therapy. But there was no significant difference in the serum selenium level between HIV-positive patients who were on the combination therapies and HIV-positive patients who were not on any form of antiviral therapy in this study. Low serum selenium levels are found to be prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in this study. In conclusion, the decrease in antioxidant micronutrient selenium that accompanies HIV infection suggests a potentially important role of nutritional supplementation and good nutrition in proper management of HIV/AIDS. Thus, early evaluation of nutritional status of these subjects and providing appropriate nutritional support and mineral supplementation along with the specific anti-retroviral treatment are highly recommended.

[Akinjinmi AA, Akingbade OA, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Evaluation of Selenium and Zinc Levels in Seropositive HIV Individuals in a Tertiary Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):17-21] (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.04

 

Keywords: Selenium, Zinc, Seropositive, HIV individuals

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黑洞是大自然伟大力量的产物,人类也许永远不可能制造出来任何人造黑洞

 

张洞生

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook,com    7/15/2013.

 

【内容摘要】30多年来,各国的一些科学家发表了对人造黑洞许多耸人听闻的和混淆视听的言论和文章,他们对真正的引力黑洞即史瓦西黑洞并未作认真的研究,对黑洞的各种物理参数的数值也没有作详细的计算,其实他们都还没有找出完整的计算黑洞各参数的准确公式。黑洞是经典理论的产物,只能从经典理论中找出正确公式来解释和计算。而且,黑洞理论以前并不完善,只有在作者最近推导出来黑洞的霍金辐射mss与黑洞质量Mb的准确公式1d-- mss Mb = hC/8πG = 1.18710--10g2后,黑洞理论才趋于完善,才能计算出黑洞的各种物理参数的精确数值。因此,他们都有意或者无意地用不适当的公式所计算出来的黑洞参数值,并非真正的引力黑洞所应有的数值,从而混淆了引力黑洞与由高能量粒子和高能量粒子团浆形成的火球的原则性区别,而误导了大众的视听。再者,也有某些实验科学家有可能为达到自己的特殊目的而制造人造黑洞的虚假的耸人新闻。本文的目的在于用黑洞6个正确的基本公式,计算出大小不同的史瓦西黑洞的5个参数-- MbRbTbmssb的准确数值,使人们可一目了然地知道人类或许永远也没有能力制造出真正的人造史瓦西(引力)黑洞,而无须对耸人听闻的人造黑洞谣言产生恐慌。

[张洞生. 黑洞是大自然伟大力量的产物,人类也许永远不可能制造出来任何人造黑洞. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):22-30] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5

 

关键词】:人造黑洞;真正的引力(史瓦西)黑洞;各种引力黑洞在其视界半径上的参数;引力黑洞与非引力黑洞的区别;人类不可能制造出人造引力黑洞

 

Any Artificial Mini Black Hole May Be Not Manufactured By Mankind Forever

Zhang Dongshesng

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook,com

Abstracts】:Many scientists in different countries did some alarmist talks  about “artificial black holes (BH)” over twenty years. In reality,  they might have the incomplete knowledge of black-hole theory until the new formula1d-- mss Mb = hC/8πG = 1.18710--10g2 derived by author recenty, and they had no correct formulas enough to calculate out the exact parameter values of various real gravitational (Schwarzchild) BHs. Thus, they might consciously or unconsciously obscure the principal differences between the real gravitational BHs and non-BHs. In this article, after a group of correct formulas included new formula 1dcan be applied to exactly calculate out every parameters of real gravitational BHs, it can be completely demonstrated that, any “ artificial Schwarzchild’s BHs ” will have no possibility to be manufactured out by mankind forever.

Key words: artificial black holes; real gravitationa l(Schwarzchild) black holes; principal differences between the real gravitational BH and non-BH parameters on the Event Horizon of any gravitational BHs; artificial black holes impossible forever.

[Zhang Dongshesng. Any Artificial Mini Black Hole May Be Not Manufactured By Mankind Forever. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):22-30] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.05

 

Keywords: 黑洞; 自然; 力量; 产物; 人类; 制造

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Designing a Pluralistic Curriculum Model for the Iranian Education System

 

Hamid Reza Motamed, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian, Alireza yousefy

 

1. PhD student at Islamic Azad University, khorasgan Branch , Isfahan, +989171816605

2. Associate Professor of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, +989131115107

3. Associate Professor of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, +989131161037

Hrmotamed@yahoo.com, mhyarm@yahoo.com, ar.yousefy@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to propose a pluralistic curriculum model for the Iranian education system. To reach this end, Conceptual Analysis Model was utilized. Through purposeful sampling, three countries, namely the United States, Canada, and Australia were selected, and their curriculum elements were interpreted and investigated following theoretical conceptualizations. Then, to develop an optimal pluralistic curriculum model for the Iranian education system, the model was surveyed by curriculum experts. According to the findings, an optimal pluralistic curriculum model compared to the present condition which includes only two factors (viz. racial/ethical inequality and gender inequality), should involve five factors including racial/ethical iniquity, linguistic pluralism, gender inequality, social inequality, and religious diversity. In fact, the desired model, besides racial/ethical inequality and gender inequality, should also subsume linguistic pluralism (second priority), social inequality (fourth priority), and religious diversity (fifth priority).  

[Hamid Reza Motamed, Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian, Alireza yousefy. Designing a Pluralistic Curriculum Model for the Iranian Education System. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):31-38] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.06

 

Key words: Curriculum Design, Pluralistic Curriculum, Iranian education system

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Advantageous educational models for gifted Students

 

Shabani Fard, Majid

 

Professional and Technical University

majid.shabanifard1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: This article presents an historical perspective on the evolution of three education and training program and educational models that have been shown to be Advantageous with gifted learners in various contexts and at various grade levels. It argues for consideration of all three models in a comprehensive program for gifted learners. Many people have been attracted to the issue of education and training program for the gifted because they feel it is new territory. While it is true that education and training program has not been a central focus in the field until recently, it would be inappropriate to conclude that we need new models and methods to provide appropriately differentiated learning experiences for gifted learners. The purpose of this paper is to present Advantageous education and training program and educational models that should form the basis of our education and training program efforts and to discuss their relevance to current school practices.

[Shabani Fard, Majid. Advantageous educational models for gifted Students. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):39-44] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.07

 

Key words: educational models, gifted students, learning, education and training program.

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The impacts of educational reforms in Professional and Technical systems

 

Shabani Fard, Majid

 

Professional and Technical University

majid.shabanifard1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Fast development in society has brought about the necessity to develop and to reorganize Professional and Technical systems, and the reform in Professional and Technical systems is going on in Iran at present. Curricula development has been one of the central problems in the reform of Professional and Technical system and training in Iran. The purpose of this article is to give a historical survey of the Professional and Technical systems curricula development process during the last two decades in Iran. Based on survey results the article gives a historical background of Iran Professional and Technical systems; the situation in development of formal initial Professional and Technical systems curricula; changes that have taken place during the two decades; results that have been achieved by the end of the last decade; and problems and challenges facing the Professional and Technical system curricula development during the present decade have been described. Survey results show that the process has been very quick, multifaceted, complex and complicated. Results of Iran Professional and Technical systems curricula development have been significant functional national curricula that have been developed and they comply with professional standards; the curricula are outcome-based and correspond to the needs of the learners and the society.

[Shabani Fard, Majid. The impacts of educational reforms in Professional and Technical systems. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):45-49] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.08

 

Key words: Professional and Technical systems, training, curriculum development, educational reforms

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9

Investment and challenges of financial market in agriculture sector

 

Javidi, Ali

 

Master of Science in Entrepreneurship of Tehran University

alijavidi1@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Gaining sustainable growth in agriculture is one of the fundamental issues that governments of the countries with low and medium income are facing. Creating such growth depends on the inclination of governments in the field of poverty eradication; necessity to organizing the sufficient provision of food and attention to the key role that agriculture sector can play in comprehensive economic development of countries. In Iran also, agriculture sector due to the comprehensive impact it can have in the field of overcoming the economic – social challenges (provision of independence and food security, job creation, sustainable development and protecting environment) have a significant place and indicate to the necessity of making new investments in agriculture. Easy and fast access to financial sources is one of the necessities and perquisites of investment and development of agriculture sector. However; due to unique characteristics of agriculture sector, lack of development of financial markets of agriculture and existence of bottlenecks in procuring the required and necessary financial source s have made this sector to face severe limitations in investment. This paper shows that to create efficiency in financial markets of agriculture, the government in addition to establishing proper policy frameworks and eliminating their inefficient interventions in this sector should overcome the impediments of financial intermediation, enhancing financial structures and developing financial tools and providing sustainable financial services for making new investments and for Economic agents in this sector.

[Javidi, Ali. Investment and challenges of financial market in agriculture sector. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):50-54] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.09

 

Key words: investment, agriculture financial market, bank credits, financing, securities.

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The role of personality factors in promoting academic

(Case Study: 412 students from Mazandaran, Iran)

 

Feizi, Mohammad Reza

 

Faculty of Islamshahr Islamic Azad University

mohammadreza.feizi1@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The personal determinants of promoting academic and success have captured the attention of many scholars for the last decades. Among other factors, personality factors and self-efficacy beliefs have proved to be important predictors of promoting academic. The present study examines the unique contribution and the pathways through which traits and academic self-efficacy beliefs are conducive to promoting academic at the end of junior and senior high school. Participants were 412 students form Mazandaran, Iran, 196 boys and 216 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. The hypothesized relations among the variables were tested within the framework of structural equation model. As a preliminary step, we computed the correlations between each of the Big Five at times 1 and 3, junior high-school grades at time 2, and high-school grades at time 4. The correlations were partialled for the other personality dimension in order to disentangle the unique effects of each the Big Five. Preliminary analyses showed that openness and conscientiousness were the only personality factors associated with school performance. The unique contribution of extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability at times 1 and 3 were not significant.

[Feizi, Mohammad Reza. The role of personality factors in promoting academic (Case Study: 412 students from Mazandaran, Iran). Academ Arena 2013;5(9):55-65] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.10

 

Key words: personality factors, self-efficacy, promoting academic, traits

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Isolation, Characterization And Antibiogram Of Proteus Species In The Urine Of Male Students Of University Of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja

 

Ugoh, Sylvanus Chukwudi, Nneji, Lotanna Micah and Umoru, Daniel

 

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Abuja, PMB 117, FCT, Nigeria

sylvaugoh@hotmail.com, lotannanneji@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The isolation, characterization and antibiogram of Proteus species in the urine of male students of University of Abuja was carried out. One hundred and fifty four (154) early morning mid-stream urine samples were collected from the male students. Ten-fold serial dilutions of the samples were carried out. 0.2ml of 10-3 dilutions of each urine sample was aseptically inoculated onto freshly prepared Cystine Lactose Electrolyte-Deficient (CLED), Nutrient agar and MacConkay agar plates using the spread plate technique and incubated for 24 hours at 370C.  The resulting colonies were counted and further identified by cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on the isolated Proteus species using standard antibiotic discs. The results obtained showed that the mean total Proteus count ranged from 1.21x102 1.0 – 1.01x103 7.1 cfu/ml. Out of the 154 samples examined, 151 (98.10%) were positive for bacteriuria. Furthermore, it was also observed that 10 (6.5%) samples were positive for Proteus species infection. The results show that the Proteus species isolated in this work were susceptible to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Pefloxacin and Sparfloxacin and as such are suitable for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Proteus species. 

[Ugoh, S.C., Nneji, L.M. and Umoru, D. Isolation, Characterization and Antibiogram of Proteus Species in the Urine of Male Students of University of Abuja, Gwagwalada, Abuja. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):66-71] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.11

 

Keywords: Isolation, characterization, antibiogram, Proteus, urinary tract infection

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12

Dark Energy

 

George Gerhab

 

Abstract  Dark energy may be the energy of the unsynchronized pairs of points which are virtual pairs that were given a small impulse, Imin , from the motion of an unpaired point which, suddenly, at the speed of light, springs up at a distance dx away in a time dt. (see my previous paper)  Imin knocks the synchronization out of a virtual pair (which usually lasts 10-44 s) which can no longer disappear together since its two points’ timing are now different.  USP’s (unsynchronized pairs) last, and travel at the speed of light, until their energy is taken away. I showed, in my last paper, that these USP’s carry the electric charge and produce the electric force through singly charged directed USP’s, and gravitational force through two, or more, even number of neutral USP’s (the probability of two USP’s, one from a + charge and one from a – charge, acting in concert to cause this force is G). 

[George Gerhab. Dark Energy. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):72-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.12

 

Key words: Energy

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 Key Characteristics of Adult Education and Literacy Programs

 

Esmaeel Ghorbani1 , Maryam Khodamoradi2 , Mehran Bozorgmanesh3 and Abbas Emami4

 

1,2,3,4 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult education is the practice of teaching and educating adults. Adult education takes place in the workplace, through 'extension' school (e.g. Harvard Extension) or 'school of continuing education' (Columbia School of Continuing Education). Other learning places include community colleges, folk high schools, and lifelong learning centers. The practice is also often referred to as 'Training and Development 'and is often associated with workforce or professional development. It has also been referred to as andragogy (to distinguish it from pedagogy). Adult education is different from vocational education, which is mostly workplace-based for skill improvement; and also from non-formal adult education, including learning skills or learning for personal development.

[Esmaeel Ghorbani , Maryam Khodamoradi , Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Key Characteristics of Adult Education and Literacy Programs. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):73-77] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.13

 

 Keywords: indigenous knowledge, rural

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No Acceleration in Gravity !

 

Salah Eid

 

Faculty of Arts- Suez-canal University –Ismailia -Egypt

Salaheid050@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The familiar acceleration concept  or means the constant deviation from traveling in a straight line caused by inertia to falling towards the center of gravity where the resultant is the circular motion around this center, but this concept is not a correct explanation of gravitational motion, the correct one is simply the squared circular  motion =determined by the distance  from the center of gravity, because: 1-It is impossible mathematically to analyze Kepler's third law on acceleration basis. 2- In the case of artificial satellite orbiting the Earth the dependence is on the circular motion not on the acceleration in calculating the demanded position of the satellite. 3- In the case of falling objects toward the Earth's center, what increases is its squared circular motion, and not its changing velocity  with the squared time.

[George Gerhab. Dark Energy. Academ Arena 2013;5(9):78-80] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 14. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.14

 

Key words : Kepler thid law, Gravitational constant, acceleration, artificial satellites

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DARWIN SIR IS WRONG?! (A theory on “J” chromosome Human)

 

M.Arulmani, B.E. (Engineer)

m.arulmani58@gmail.com

V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. (Biologist)

vrhemalatha58@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT: This Scientific Research focus that prehistoric human had “J” chromosome and lived before modern human having xx, xy chromosome. The “J” chromosome population had only 3 chromosome and only single type blood “AB” on origin. The “J” chromosome human shall also be considered as Prehistoric “CLONING” human evolved of spontaneously without sex involvement. It is speculated that the Principle of cloning in modern time might be derived from Prehistoric “J” chromosome human. This research provides solution to the current mystic Problem of “Missing Link” and Human Ancestor. It is speculated that Darwin Sir probably be an Atheist and hence he might be against to “Third gender” Godly population and framed his theory that Godly person is like an Ape. But Godly population not only loves Godly persons but Atheist, Apes as well. In the lineage of evolution, Darwin Sir was at the stage of 46, 48 chromosome organisms who were having xx, xy, chromosomes. Where as the J chromosome human belived to have existed with 3 chromosome on Origin with long evolutionary gap. Darwin Sir Probably might have hided deliberately this mystery in his research.

[M. Arulmani, V.R. Hema Latha, M.A., M.Sc., M. Phil. DARWIN SIR IS WRONG?!..Academ Arena 2013;5(9):81-92] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 15. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050913.15

 

KEYWORDS: Stardust, philosophy of “J” chromosome, Philosophy of fundamental Neutrinos, Neutrino cell, Philosophy of Electromagnetic radiation, Philosophy of cell, Philosophy of chromosome, Distinction between Atom and cell, philosophy of Human Natural J-code sensor, star point connectivity, First Blood group origin.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from August 28, 2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

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