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Science Journal


Academia Arena


Volume 5 - Number 8 (Cumulated No. 50),  August 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file


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Titles / Authors




Some Morphometric Parameters of Pomadasys Jubelini in the New Calabar – Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria


Agbugui, M.O and Oniye, S.J.


Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria,



Abstract: The morphometric parameters of Pomadasys jubelini were studied using 413 specimens from June 2011 to May 2013 using different fishing gears. The length of fish ranged from 9.60 – 55.3cm (TL). Positive allometric growth (J>1) was obtained for the length - girth relationship with growth rate values J = 1.21 and 2.28 for males and females respectively. Correlation coefficients (r) for male and female were 0.91and 0.82 respectively. “r” was positive for both sexes studies. The standard – pectoral fins’ length relationship showed positive proportionate growth rate (b = 0.27) and r = 0.994. Positive proportionate growth was also obtained for total – pelvic fin’s length relationships were b = 4.49 and r = 0.947. The relationship between the girth and head length was positive where b = 4.35 and the correlation coefficient r = was 0.678.

[Agbugui, M.O and Oniye, S.J. Some Morphometric Parameters of Pomadasys Jubelini in the New Calabar –Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria. Academia Arena 2013;5(8):1-4] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.01


Key words: length – breadth, pelvic fin, pectoral fin, Pomadasys jubelini

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Moments of Order Statistics From Independent Nonidentical Random Variables for Group Distributions


Jamjoom A. and Al-Saiary Z.


Department of Statistics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 415, Jeddah 21411 Saudi Arabia



Abstract: In this paper we derive a general relation for the moments of order statistics (o.s.) from independent and Nonidentically distributed (inid) random variables (r.v.’s) arising from a group of distributions. This group of distributions is represented by the cumulative distribution function (c.d.f.) in the form  QUOTE  . Application for eight known distributions is given.

[Jamjoom A., Al-Saiary Z. Moments of Order Statistics From Independent Nonidentical Random Variables for Group Distributions. Academia Arena 2013;5(8):5-17] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.02


Key words: Order statistics, moments, nonidentically distributed random variables

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Systematic Method for Constructing a Markov Model for the Safety of Systems


Mohammad Sadeghi


Computer Engineering Department, Dezfoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezfoul, Iran



Abstract: In large set of dependable systems, such as aircrafts, nuclear power plants, traffic control, monitoring and controlling medical equipment, parameters of reliability and safety are immensely important. In addition to the proper functioning, these systems must be designed in a way so that in case of an error in hardware and software they would stop functioning in a safe way so that no harm would come to anybody or anything; for example an airplane would conduct an emergency landing or a power plant would perform an emergency shutdown. One of the methods to secure a system is the use of redundancy in its structure. Redundancy can be embedded in different ways into the system and the NMR form is one of the conventional methods. When a system is designed with appropriate redundancy, it must be then analyzed and modeled in terms of safety and one of the common methods is the Markov process. This paper presents a systematic method for constructing a Markov model of the safety of systems and implements it in a number of prototype systems. Furthermore, the capability of the method for the direct construction of the Markov model for the NMR system of safety is also described.

 [Mohammad Sadeghi, Gholamreza Latif Shabgahi. Systematic Method for Constructing a Markov Model for the Safety of Systems. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):18-23] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.03


Key words: Safety, Evaluation, NMR, TMR, Markov model, Redundancy.

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Toxicity of The Aqueous aAnd Alcoholic Extracts of Nicotiana Tabacum (Tobacco Plant) on Histopathological and Haematological Parameters of Albino Rats


Oye Fafioye1., and Olusegun John-Dewole 2


1Department of Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria

Email: *ofafioye@yahoo.com phone: +2348037172255

1segunotaru@yahoo.com phone: +2348034968640


Abstract: This research work exposed albino rats to dosage of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of N. tabacum. Rat samples showed continued loss of weight and general body weakness; especially in the limbs. The animals treated with alcoholic extract showed sluggishness after each round of dosage administration. The rats became less and less active as each day passes. Some of the rats were paralysed, which may be as a result of the intravascular injection. There was mortality and constant weight-loss recorded at the end of the experiment. N. tabacum exhibited some remarkable histopathological effects like haemorrhagic discharges and congestion in the liver and kidney of the treated rat samples.  Severe vacuolar degeneration was also observed in the liver of exposed rats. Haematological effects of N. tabacum include; decrease in PCV, haemoglobin, RBC, WBC and platelet counts in the exposed rat specimen. This has led to reduction in amount of dissolved oxygen needed to be transported to body cells for normal metabolic activities and also made the body defenseless to foreign pathogenic organisms. However, the slight increase in lymphocytes as observed in the aqueous extract of N. tabacum treated rats could indicate presence of toxic agents in the plant. Therefore, further research work will be recommended to carry out a bioactivity and directed fractionation to detect which chemical compound(s) among the secondary metabolites is responsible for each of the pharmaco-toxicological manifestations associated with N. tabacum.

[Fafioye OO, John-dewole OO. Toxicity of The Aqueous aAnd Alcoholic Extracts of Nicotiana Tabacum (Tobacco Plant) on Histopathological and Haematological Parameters of Albino Rats. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):24-29] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.04


Keywords: hepato-toxicity, N. tabacum, haematology, histopathology, phyto-toxicity.

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Screening of Clinically Isolated Staphylococcus aureus for Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxin Production


1, 2Awoderu OB, 2Damlola AB, 3,4Akingbade OA, 5Okerentugba PO, 5Okonko IO


1Immunology unit, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba Lagos

E-mail: bamiyin@yahoo.com

2School of Medical Laboratory Science, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria

3Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

4Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

E-mail: a.olusola@yahoo.co.uk, olusola.akingbade@yahoo.com

5Medical Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;

mac2finney@yahoo.com, iheanyi.okonko@uniport.edu.ng; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891


Abstract: Biochemically identified S. aureus isolates from the various clinical specimens from Lagos Central District healthcare centres were screened for methicillin using MRSA agar (CHROMagar). Production of enterotoxins were detected using the RIDASCREEN® SET Total kit (r-biopharm) while filtrates of the positive samples were screened for specific enterotoxins using RIDASCREEN®  SET A, B, C, D, E (r-biopharm) according to manufacturer instructions. Of the 43 coagulase positive S. aureus isolates, 22(51.0%) were identified as methicillin resistant S. aureus while 21 (49.0%) were methicillin sensitive S. aureus. Of the 43 S. aureus tested for enterotoxin, six (13.9%) possessed single enterotoxins while 4 (9.3%) possessed more than one type of enterotoxin. It also showed that coagulase-positive S. aureus from wound swabs had highest number of positive enterotoxins antibodies. Therefore, all S. aureus isolated from the laboratory specimen especially from wound specimen should be tested for enterotoxin.

[Awoderu OB, Damlola AB, Akingbade OA, Okerentugba PO, Okonko IO. Screening of Clinically Isolated Staphylococcus aureus for Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxin Production. Academ Arena 2013,5(8):30-37] (ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/academia.  5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.05


Keywords: Enterotoxins, S. aureus, Methicillin, Sensitive, Resistance, Screening

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The Essential Skills for Teachers in Third millennium era


Ommehkolsoum Gholamhosseinzadeh1, Vahid Rezaie2


1Assistant Professor, Sari branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

2No. 3, shohaday gharbi Street, Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran


Abstract: Third millennium has been called the age of information and knowledge era. The most important function of education is past, the memories and increase data transfer, nowadays it has an important role. The answer to this question: Are there educational methods to respond in the new century? If not, what changes are needed in order to be regarded as an efficient system of education? Development of teaching skills is the most important factor in successful teaching. Today, the teachers need for special skills, the purpose of this paper is to review specific training skills such as: 1- new technology; 2- Communication; 3- action research; 4- Creativity 5- The use of active teaching. The skills of the teacher are to change traditional patterns of learning at different levels. Consequently, successful people are being trained for the future.

[Ommehkolsoum Gholamhosseinzadeh, Vahid Rezaie. The Essential Skills for Teachers in Third millennium era Composting Processes. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):38-41] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.06


Key words: Research about skills, teaching, learning, students, teaching creativity

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zhangds12@hotmail.com zds@outlook.com


【内容提要】: 1998年,由美国加里福里亚大学的劳仑斯伯克莱国家实验室的Saul Perlmutter教授和澳大利亚国立大学的Brain Schmidt所分别领导的两个小组,通过对遥远的Ia型超新星爆炸的观测,发现了我们宇宙的加速膨胀现象。他们指出那些星系正在加速地离开我们。[3] 现在,主流科学家们认为我们宇宙的加速膨胀是由于宇宙中存在具有排斥力和负能量的神秘的暗能量所造成的。其中一些科学家们正为获得以后的诺贝尔奖而努力寻找这种暗能量。特别是,我们宇宙诞生于137亿年前,那时暗能量並没有随宇宙诞生而出现,而暗能量却是在大约87亿年前蹦出来的.[3] 究竟什么是暗能量呢? 现在还无人知道。中国科技大学物理学李淼教授就幽默地说过:有多少个暗能量的学者,就能想像出多少种暗能量[3] 那么,,我们宇宙的加速膨胀就只能用具有排斥力和负能量的神秘的暗能量来解释吗? 这种解释的依据合理吗?本文的目的在于,按照黑洞的原理和其本性,论证任何一个黑洞的膨胀产生于吞噬外界的能量-物质和与其它黑洞的碰撞,它所吞噬的能量-物质愈多愉快,就膨胀得愈快。对我们宇宙的加速膨胀现象,作者试图用一个宇宙黑洞和另一个宇宙黑洞在其早期的碰撞和合并来解释。虽然本文中的论证可能相对地简单,但也许比现有的其它各种理论更为合理和合乎实际。   

[张洞生. 宇宙的加速膨胀可能是由于在早期我们宇宙黑洞与另一宇宙黑洞之间的碰撞和合并所造成的. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):42-48] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.07



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Adaptation of Gordon Pask Learning Style Inventory into Turkish




Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Education, Necmettin Erbakan University.



Abstract: In this study, linguistic equivalency, validity and reliability studies of Gordon Pask Learning Style Inventory were carried out and the inventory was adapted into Turkish. The study was conducted on 725 students (412 female, 313 male) majoring in various departments in Faculty of Education at N.E. University. The inventory is composed of 22 items with 6 Likert type choices. Content and construct validity studies were made as a part of validation study. Expert views were taken for content validity of the learning style inventory and construct validity was determined with factor analysis. For the reliability of the inventory, Cronbach Alpha coefficient and test-retest method were used. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the inventory was determined to be 0.78, and test-retest reliability coefficient was determined to be 0.99. As a result of analysis, it was concluded that Gordon Pask Learning Style Inventory is a valid and reliable measurement instrument.

[Sayime ERBEN KEÇİCİ. Adaptation of Gordon Pask Learning Style Inventory into Turkish. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):49-53] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.08


Key words: learning style, validity, reliability, serialist-holist

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Recommended by 王德奎, y-tx@163.com



[王马. 从特斯拉到生命泛旋量子---《黄帝内经》量子人学(1. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):54-67] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.09



关键词:量子簸场 黄帝内经 量子信息 经络

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Effect of host plants on the life-history traits of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) at different constant temperature


Smita chaturwedi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra, Arvind K. Yadav and C.P.M. Tripathi


Entomology research Laboratory, Department of Zoology

Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University Gorakhpur, U.P. India

Email: b2mishra123@gmail.com


Abstract: The pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is considered to be the most important pest of several crops. In northeastern Uttar Pradesh, it is a major problem on chick pea (Cicer arietinum), Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), and Tomato. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) are tiny wasp, and considered as egg and larval parasitoid respectively, of several lepidopteran host including H. armigera, and are widely used in biological control. The aim of the present study was to control the pest population of H. armigera by using these parasitoids. Five districts of northeastern Uttar Pradesh, namely Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, Deoria, Mahrajganj and Sidharthnagar, was surveyed for the incidence of H. armigera on different crops such as chick pea, Pigeon pea and corn. The results revealed that pod borer was a major pest of chick pea and pigeon pea in northeastern Uttar Pradesh. Two parasitic wasp, T. chilonis and C. chlorideae were naturally occurring, also noted the high rate of parasitism in the field on crops under study .These findings can be used in the control of H. armigera on crops where natural parasitism seemed to be high.

[Smita chaturwedi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra, Arvind K. Yadav, C.P.M. Tripathi. Effect of host plants on the life-history traits of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) at different constant temperature. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):68-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.10


Key Words: Helicoverpa armigera, Trichogramma chilonis, Progeny sex ratio, Biological control.

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Speaking Up And Silencing Out In Networked Sphere On National Issues: A Content Analysis Of The Nigerian Global Awakening Day Online Protest Group


Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim


Computer Department, University of Abuja

Email: hbisallah@gmail.com


Abstract: The 2012 Occupy Nigeria Protests which occurred after the decision of the Federal Government of Nigeria to remove fuel subsidy put Nigeria on global social media map; most especially Facebook which was explored by the civil society groups and human right activists across the country to campaign against the decision. During the protest, various socio-political movements emerged, calling government’s attention to the impacts of the decision on the masses, and by extension the nation’s economy, if eventually implemented. The groups that were formed then aimed at revealing varied consequences of the policy on the masses, which range from social to economic. The Nigerian Global Awakening Protest Day Group is an online protest platform created after the popular protests, demanding holistic approaches to various socio-economic and political problems in the country. It is against this background that this study investigated how actors and followers or bystanders of the group speak up and silent out on certain national issues through their posts and comments. The study employed content analysis as a main research design, while data gathered were analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (PASW 18.0). Findings revealed that members of the group discussed poor leadership as an issue covertly (93.3%) and overtly (84.3%). Also, the study established that 9.0% of the members that commented on the analysed posts expressed their opinion overtly on a combination of corruption and poor leadership. Specifically, the study established no relationship between types of agenda set by members of the group and national issues they overtly expressed. However, there was a strong relationship between types of agenda created by ‘actors’ and national issues overtly expressed within the context of their posts.

[Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim. Speaking Up And Silencing Out In Networked Sphere On National Issues: A Content Analysis Of The Nigerian Global Awakening Day Online Protest Group. Academ Arena 2013;5(8):73-85] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050813.11


Key Words: National Issues, Speaking Up, Silencing Out, Covertly, Overtly, Nigeria

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 30, 2013. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
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