Volume 5 - Number 8
(Cumulated No. 50), August 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X
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Titles / Authors
Parameters of Pomadasys Jubelini in the New Calabar –
Bonny River, Porthacourt, Nigeria
Agbugui, M.O and Oniye, S.J.
Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University
The morphometric parameters of Pomadasys jubelini
were studied using 413 specimens from June 2011 to May
2013 using different fishing gears. The length of fish ranged
from 9.60 – 55.3cm (TL). Positive allometric growth (J>1) was
obtained for the length - girth relationship with growth rate
values J = 1.21 and 2.28 for males and females respectively.
Correlation coefficients (r) for male and female were 0.91and
0.82 respectively. “r” was positive for both sexes studies. The
standard – pectoral fins’ length relationship showed positive
proportionate growth rate (b = 0.27) and r = 0.994. Positive
proportionate growth was also obtained for total – pelvic fin’s
length relationships were b = 4.49 and r = 0.947. The
relationship between the girth and head length was positive
where b = 4.35 and the correlation coefficient r = was 0.678.
M.O and Oniye, S.J. Some Morphometric Parameters of
Pomadasys Jubelini in the New Calabar –Bonny River,
Porthacourt, Nigeria. Academia
Key words: length – breadth, pelvic fin, pectoral fin,
Moments of Order Statistics
From Independent Nonidentical Random Variables for Group
Jamjoom A. and Al-Saiary Z.
Department of Statistics, College
of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 415, Jeddah 21411
Abstract: In this paper we
derive a general relation for the moments of order statistics (o.s.)
from independent and Nonidentically distributed (inid) random
variables (r.v.’s) arising from a group of distributions. This
group of distributions is represented by the cumulative
distribution function (c.d.f.) in the form QUOTE
Application for eight known distributions is given.
Al-Saiary Z. Moments of Order
Statistics From Independent Nonidentical Random Variables for
Academia Arena 2013;5(8):5-17] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Order statistics, moments, nonidentically distributed random
Method for Constructing a Markov Model for the Safety of Systems
Computer Engineering Department,
Dezfoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dezfoul, Iran
Abstract: In large set of dependable systems, such as
aircrafts, nuclear power plants, traffic control, monitoring
and controlling medical equipment, parameters of reliability
and safety are immensely important. In addition to the proper
functioning, these systems must be designed in a way so that in
case of an error in hardware and software they would stop
functioning in a safe way so that no harm would come to anybody
or anything; for example an airplane would conduct an emergency
landing or a power plant would perform an emergency shutdown.
One of the methods to secure a system is the use of redundancy
in its structure. Redundancy can be embedded in different ways
into the system and the NMR form is one of the conventional
methods. When a system is designed with appropriate redundancy,
it must be then analyzed and modeled in terms of safety and one
of the common methods is the Markov process. This paper presents
a systematic method for constructing a Markov model of the
safety of systems and implements it in a number of prototype
systems. Furthermore, the capability of the method for the
direct construction of the Markov model for the NMR system of
safety is also described.
[Mohammad Sadeghi, Gholamreza Latif Shabgahi.
Systematic Method for Constructing a Markov Model for the Safety
of Systems. Academ Arena
Safety, Evaluation, NMR, TMR, Markov model, Redundancy.
Toxicity of The
Aqueous aAnd Alcoholic Extracts of Nicotiana Tabacum
(Tobacco Plant) on Histopathological and Haematological
Parameters of Albino Rats
Oye Fafioye1., and Olusegun John-Dewole 2
of Zoology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Ogun State,
of Biochemistry, Lead City University, Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria
This research work exposed albino rats to dosage of aqueous and
alcoholic extracts of N. tabacum. Rat samples showed
continued loss of weight and general body weakness; especially
in the limbs. The animals treated with alcoholic extract showed
sluggishness after each round of dosage administration. The rats
became less and less active as each day passes. Some of the rats
were paralysed, which may be as a result of the intravascular
injection. There was mortality and constant weight-loss recorded
at the end of the experiment. N. tabacum exhibited some
remarkable histopathological effects like haemorrhagic
discharges and congestion in the liver and kidney of the treated
rat samples. Severe vacuolar degeneration was also observed in
the liver of exposed rats. Haematological effects of N.
tabacum include; decrease in PCV, haemoglobin, RBC, WBC and
platelet counts in the exposed rat specimen. This has led to
reduction in amount of dissolved oxygen needed to be transported
to body cells for normal metabolic activities and also made the
body defenseless to foreign pathogenic organisms. However, the
slight increase in lymphocytes as observed in the aqueous
extract of N. tabacum treated rats could indicate
presence of toxic agents in the plant. Therefore, further
research work will be recommended to carry out a bioactivity and
directed fractionation to detect which chemical compound(s)
among the secondary metabolites is responsible for each of the
pharmaco-toxicological manifestations associated with N.
[Fafioye OO, John-dewole OO. Toxicity of The Aqueous aAnd
Alcoholic Extracts of Nicotiana Tabacum (Tobacco Plant)
on Histopathological and Haematological Parameters of Albino
hepato-toxicity, N. tabacum, haematology, histopathology,
Screening of Clinically Isolated
for Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxin Production
OB, 2Damlola AB, 3,4Akingbade OA, 5Okerentugba
PO, 5Okonko IO
unit, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba Lagos
of Medical Laboratory Science, Lagos University Teaching
Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria
of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta,
Ogun State, Nigeria
of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State,
Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, University of
Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Choba, East-West Road, Port
Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria;
email@example.com; Tel.: +234 803 538 0891
Biochemically identified S.
isolates from the various clinical specimens from
Lagos Central District healthcare
centres were screened for methicillin using MRSA agar (CHROMagar).
Production of enterotoxins were detected using the
RIDASCREEN® SET Total kit (r-biopharm) while filtrates
positive samples were screened for specific enterotoxins using
RIDASCREEN® SET A, B, C, D, E (r-biopharm) according to
Of the 43 coagulase positive S.
isolates, 22(51.0%) were identified as methicillin resistant
S. aureus while 21 (49.0%) were methicillin sensitive S.
aureus. Of the 43 S. aureus tested for enterotoxin,
six (13.9%) possessed single enterotoxins while 4 (9.3%)
possessed more than one type of enterotoxin. It also showed that
coagulase-positive S. aureus from wound swabs had highest
number of positive enterotoxins antibodies. Therefore, all S.
aureus isolated from the laboratory specimen especially from
wound specimen should be tested for enterotoxin.
[Awoderu OB, Damlola AB, Akingbade OA, Okerentugba PO, Okonko
Screening of Clinically Isolated Staphylococcus aureus
for Methicillin Resistance and Enterotoxin Production.
(ISSN: 1553-9865) http://www.sciencepub.net/academia.
Enterotoxins, S. aureus,
Methicillin, Sensitive, Resistance, Screening
The Essential Skills for
Professor, Sari branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran
3, shohaday gharbi Street, Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran
Third millennium has been called
the age of information and knowledge era. The most important
function of education is past, the memories and increase data
transfer, nowadays it has an important role. The answer to this
question: Are there educational methods to respond in the new
If not, what changes are
needed in order to be regarded as an efficient system of
education? Development of teaching skills is the most important
factor in successful teaching. Today, the teachers need for
special skills, the purpose of this paper is to review specific
training skills such as: 1- new technology; 2- Communication; 3-
action research; 4- Creativity 5- The use of active teaching.
The skills of the teacher are to change traditional patterns of
learning at different levels. Consequently, successful people
are being trained for the future.
Vahid Rezaie. The Essential Skills for
era Composting Processes.
2013;5(8):38-41] (ISSN 1553-992X).
teaching, learning, students, teaching creativity
2013;5(8):42-48] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Adaptation of Gordon Pask
Learning Style Inventory into Turkish
Sayime ERBEN KEÇİCİ
Department of Educational
Sciences, Faculty of Education, Necmettin Erbakan University.
Abstract: In this study, linguistic equivalency, validity
and reliability studies of Gordon Pask Learning Style Inventory
were carried out and the inventory was adapted into Turkish. The
study was conducted on 725 students (412 female, 313 male)
majoring in various departments in Faculty of Education at N.E.
University. The inventory is composed of 22 items with 6 Likert
type choices. Content and construct validity studies were made
as a part of validation study. Expert views were taken for
content validity of the learning style inventory and construct
validity was determined with factor analysis. For the
reliability of the inventory, Cronbach Alpha coefficient and
test-retest method were used. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient of
the inventory was determined to be 0.78, and test-retest
reliability coefficient was determined to be 0.99. As a result
of analysis, it was concluded that Gordon Pask Learning Style
Inventory is a valid and reliable measurement instrument.
[Sayime ERBEN KEÇİCİ. Adaptation of Gordon Pask Learning
Style Inventory into Turkish. Academ Arena
2013;5(8):49-53] (ISSN 1553-992X).
learning style, validity, reliability, serialist-holist
2013;5(8):54-67] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Effect of host plants on the life-history traits of
Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii) at different constant
Smita chaturwedi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra, Arvind K. Yadav and
Entomology research Laboratory, Department of Zoology
Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University Gorakhpur, U.P. India
The pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is considered to be the most important
pest of several crops. In northeastern Uttar Pradesh, it is a
major problem on chick pea (Cicer arietinum), Pigeon pea
(Cajanus cajan), and Tomato. Trichogramma chilonis
Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Campoletis
chlorideae Uchida (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) are tiny
wasp, and considered as egg and larval parasitoid respectively,
of several lepidopteran host including H. armigera, and
are widely used in biological control. The aim of the present
study was to control the pest population of H. armigera
by using these parasitoids. Five districts of
northeastern Uttar Pradesh, namely Gorakhpur, Kushinagar, Deoria,
Mahrajganj and Sidharthnagar, was surveyed for the incidence of
H. armigera on different crops such as chick pea, Pigeon
pea and corn. The results revealed that pod borer was a major
pest of chick pea and pigeon pea in northeastern Uttar Pradesh.
Two parasitic wasp, T. chilonis and C. chlorideae
were naturally occurring, also noted the high rate of parasitism
in the field on crops under study .These findings can be used in
the control of H. armigera on crops where natural
parasitism seemed to be high.
[Smita chaturwedi, Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra, Arvind K. Yadav, C.P.M.
Tripathi. Effect of host plants on
the life-history traits of Trichogramma chilonis (Ishii)
at different constant temperature. Academ Arena
2013;5(8):68-72] (ISSN 1553-992X).
armigera, Trichogramma chilonis,
Progeny sex ratio,
Speaking Up And Silencing Out In Networked Sphere On National
Issues: A Content Analysis Of The Nigerian Global Awakening Day
Online Protest Group
Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim
Computer Department, University
The 2012 Occupy Nigeria Protests which occurred after the
decision of the Federal Government of Nigeria to remove fuel
subsidy put Nigeria on global social media map; most especially
Facebook which was explored by the civil society groups and
human right activists across the country to campaign against the
decision. During the protest, various socio-political movements
emerged, calling government’s attention to the impacts of the
decision on the masses, and by extension the nation’s economy,
if eventually implemented. The groups that were formed then
aimed at revealing varied consequences of the policy on the
masses, which range from social to economic. The Nigerian Global
Awakening Protest Day Group is an online protest platform
created after the popular protests, demanding holistic
approaches to various socio-economic and political problems in
the country. It is against this background that this study
investigated how actors and followers or bystanders of the group
speak up and silent out on certain national issues through their
posts and comments. The study employed content analysis as a
main research design, while data gathered were analysed through
descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical
Package for the Social Science (PASW 18.0). Findings revealed
that members of the group discussed poor leadership as an issue
covertly (93.3%) and overtly (84.3%). Also, the study
established that 9.0% of the members that commented on the
analysed posts expressed their opinion overtly on a combination
of corruption and poor leadership. Specifically, the study
established no relationship between types of agenda set by
members of the group and national issues they overtly expressed.
However, there was a strong relationship between types of agenda
created by ‘actors’ and national issues overtly expressed within
the context of their posts.
[Bisallah Hashim Ibrahim. Speaking Up And Silencing Out In
Networked Sphere On National Issues: A Content Analysis Of The
Nigerian Global Awakening Day Online Protest Group.
Academ Arena 2013;5(8):73-85] (ISSN 1553-992X).
National Issues, Speaking Up, Silencing Out, Covertly, Overtly,
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from
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