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Science Journal


Academia Arena


Volume 5 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 49),  July 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers


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Titles / Authors




The Growth Rate And Survival Of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings In Tap, Borehole And Stream Waters


Emmanuel. C. A And Solomon, R.J


Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Abuja




ABSTRACT: Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with initial mean weights and total lengths of 0 - 20g and 0 - 15cm were stocked in six glass aquaria with a circumference of 48 x 30 x 24cm each. There were three treatments namely A (containing tap water) used as control, B (borehole water) and treatment C (stream water) were stocked with 12 Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in each aquarium and reared for 60 days. The aim is to calculate the growth and survival of C. gariepinus fingerlings. The physiological parameters monitored were within tolerable ranges e.g. temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, ammonia, and nitrite concentration. The mean total length and weight A (19.76cm), B (17.55cm) and for C (15.55cm) while their mean weights were 44.83g, 28.92g and 25.46g for A, B and C respectively. The mean total length and mean weight of Clarias gariepinus showed no significant difference (p< 0.05) Also there was no significant difference in the excluding the mean weight gain and survival rate which favored tap in relation to a higher growth and survival.

[Emmanuel. C. A And Solomon, R.J. The Growth Rate And Survival Of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings In Tap, Borehole And Stream Waters. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):1-17] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.01



Keywords: Growth Rate; Survival; Clarias Gariepinus; Fingerling; Tap; Water.

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Disability: Causes, Consequences and Rehabilitative Measures (A Sociological Study Upto the People Age Group of 10-60 years)


Irshad Ahmad Lone


Research Scholar, Singhania University, Rajasthan, India



ABSTRACT: This paper highlights the causes, consequences and rehabilitative measures among people in general upto the age of 10-60 years. First, disability has various causes some are by birth (hereditary) some are after birth e.g., accident in factories, road accident, building crush, mental tention, exchange of firing etc. Second, disability has significant consequences on individual, family and society. Person of disability feels loneliness: boundless into four walls, economically dependent and medically not treated,unable to work if his/her arm or leg is to be amputated. Socially, their contact becomes limited and psychologically the depression occurs in them. Finally, rehabilitative measures should provided in the name of disabled persons of all sections of society especially weaker sections, destitute and needy people. In an attempt to study the Causes, Consequences and rehabilitative measures among all strata of society. It examines the impact of different types of disabilities on general population between the age group of 10to60 years.

[Irshad Ahmad Lone. Disability: Causes, Consequences and Rehabilitative Measures (A Sociological Study Upto the People Age Group of 10-60 years). Academia Arena 2013;5(7):18-24] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.02


Keywords: Disability, Causes, Consequences, Rehabilitation.

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The strategy for creating creativity in employees


Vahid Khalatbari Limaki1, 2 *


1-                   MSc student, Department of Public Administration, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran

2-                   Expert in Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran

*Corresponding author: Vahid Khalatbari Limaki,

E-mail: khalatbarivahid@yahoo.com


Abstract: The most human achievements in cultural (art, literature, and philosophy and ...), economic, military and appliances fields and ... from the simplest to most complex ones are the product of creativity and innovation by scientists which has been formed during years as today shape through processing ideas, theories and innovations and at first has been created as the most preliminary form in creative human, then over time has been evolved in the path of knowledge growth. In this process, thinkers took steps toward establishing and offering new concept or theory – which sometimes was in contrast with previous theories – through using proper elements of ancient’s efforts and realizing their latent talents and increasing power of looking what is available and what is not available, right and could add reality to material and spiritual human achievements. The main managers’ responsibility is to keep organization sustainability and survival and also help to grow and develop and increase profitability. Fast growth of enterprises, rapid changes of components of environment, increased competition, and increased environmental uncertainties caused that, organizations creativity subject enjoyed high importance. This paper seeks to explain different ways of creating creativity.

[Vahid Khalatbari Limaki. The strategy for creating creativity in employees. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):25-27] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.03


Keywords: creativity, employees, organization.

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) - Significance in Research & Infrastructure Development


Vandana Dabla1, ٭, Pradeep K Dabla2


1. Research Scholar, Faculty of Public Administration, School of social Sciences, IGNOU, Delhi-110068, India

2. Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalya, Associated to MAMC, Delhi-110031, India

Email: vandana.dabla@gmail.com


Abstract: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made a tremendous advancement in recent years. It has led to improvement in many areas from life sciences to industry and from traditional physical library to modern digital library. The word information technology has been changed in all corners of the global areas leading to formation of unique single global society. In this new era of global economy the information technology has begun to play important role in contributing strategic planning process within the organizations to achieve competitive advantage. Present paper discusses the use of ICT in R & D libraries explaining the digital library and the infrastructural facilities and barriers in use of ICT in R & D libraries, significance of ICT in education and economic development, scope of ICT formulation in developing countries infrastructure and its policies constraints and desirables. From this study it confirms that ICT tools are integral part of all round development.

[Vandana Dabla, Pradeep K Dabla. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) - Significance in Research & Infrastructure Development. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):28-34] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.04


Keywords: Information Communication Technology, Digital Library, R&D Library, Developing Countries, ICT Policies constraints, ICT desirables

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5】。                             对广义相对论方程的质疑----1




Email; zhangds12@hotmail.comzds@outlook.com;


《内容摘要》:现在爱因斯坦的广义相对论方程几乎与所有当代的物理学的新观念联系在一起。比如,宇宙起源,奇点,黑洞,零点能,真空能,N维空间等等。然而,已经观测到的真实的物理世界往往证实这些与广义相对论方程相结合的新观念的虚幻性和谬误。其中最明显而困惑科学家们数十年的奇点问题就是其中之一。宇宙中根本没有具有无穷大密度奇点存在的任何迹象。再如,按照J. Wheeler等估算出真空的能量密度可高达1095g/cm3[4] 这些都是不可思议的。既然由推导和解出广义相对论方程得出奇点的结论不符合客观世界的真实性,这证明广义相对论方程本身有无法克服的缺陷。作者在本文中的目的就在于明确地指出了在场方程中,既无每个粒子的热力以对抗每个粒子的引力,因此,所有物质粒子的纯引力收缩必然违反热力学规律,使粒子团必然塌缩成为宇宙中不存在的奇点怪胎。因此,把每个粒子真实的热抗力(温度及其变化)加进到能量-动量张量项的每个粒子中去,才是改善场方程的治本方法。但这将使场方程变得更为复杂难解,所以近百年来,无人能够作到。

[张洞生. 对广义相对论方程的质疑-----1====广义相对论方程的根本缺陷是没有热力学效应,既无热力以对抗引力====. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):35-39] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.05



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6】。             对广义相对论方程的质疑-----2.




zhangds12@hotmail.com; zds@outlook.com


【内容摘要】:1*。广义相对论方程100年来之所以解决实际问题极少,特别是在宇宙学和黑洞理论方面几乎没有建树,反而带来了许多背离实际的问题,除了在前文论证了<广义相对论方程的根本缺陷是没有热力学效应,既无热力以对抗引力>之外,[6] 本文的目的在于进一步指出后来的学者们为了想从复杂得无法解出的广义相对论方程中,解出某些特殊的近似解,就必须在解场方程前,提出各种简化的、不符合物理世界真实的、违反热力学定律假设前提和条件,如均匀性、封闭系统、零压(等压)模型等。 但他们的假设条件愈多,出现的错误就愈多愈大,必然使他们解出的场方程的特殊解导致更多的荒谬结论。场方程存在的严重问题,除了没有粒子本身的热抗力之外,还普遍地假定场的均匀性和恒质-能量封闭系统,以便使一个局部的场方程的解无条件地推广到适用于广大的整个系统甚至宇宙。广义相对论方程还有一个最大的矛盾就是:一方面承认质量-能量互换和守恒定律,一方面又否定辐射能有相当的引力质量,人们会问,场方程中如何体现出能量-质量等价互换和守恒定律呢?就是说,物质粒子和辐射能的运动轨迹(测地线运动)如何有序地、有效地统一在场方程中的呢?辐射能和物质粒子是如何一起收缩成为黑洞而后又成为奇点的呢?最近有证据显示宇宙实际上是多宇宙的开放系统[9][11], 只能普遍遵守能量-质量等价互换和守恒定律。因此,在那些不合实际的假设条件下,想要用场方程解决宇宙学和黑洞问题,只能错误百出。所以场方程实际上就是一个好看而无大用途的花瓶。本文最后总结了场方程与黑洞理论的重大区别。本文还将在下面具体地分析弗里德曼模型、史瓦西度规和TOV方程,看看学者们在解场方程时,除了上述假设条件外,他们还加进了什么不当的前提条件,所得出的一些特殊解又有什么错误结论?2*科学研究的结论和结果取决于所用的理论和研究方法。不同的理论和研究方法会得出不同的结果和结论。但是不同理论、数学公式的结论的正确与否只能根据真实的观测和实验的结果予以确证作为与广义相对论方程的对比和当做范例,作者简单地用黑洞理论及其公式解决了一些宇宙学中的重大问题。黑洞理论之所以有效地符合实际,是因为它综合采用了各种近代科学理论的基本公式,而无需任何另设的假设条件,所以其结果能很好地符合客观世界的实际情况。不像解复杂的场方程,需要设立诸多违反热力学定律的简化条件作为前提,才能解出某些特例,但其结果往往成为不切实际的谬论。霍金黑洞理论的优越性就在于将黑洞视界半径Rb上的物理状态始终与热力学和量子力学联系在一起,从而证实我们宇宙的生长衰亡规律符合黑洞的理论和规律。热力学定律是宇宙中最根本的规律,是因果律在物理学中的化身。任何普遍(适)性的新物理理论,如弦论,膜论T.O.E (Theory Of Everything)等,如果无视热力学定律,必然难以成功。只有用霍金的黑洞理论才能将宇宙产生的膨胀和收缩等的规律予以正确的论证。作者新发展出来的黑洞理论只研究在其视界半径上的各种物理量(参数)的变化,与其内部结构、状态和物质密度的分布等无关,而只取决于黑洞总能量-质量Mb的值。结果,黑洞最后只能收缩成为最小黑洞Mbm = (hC/8πG)1/2 =10--5 g = mp,即普朗克粒子时,就在普朗克领域解体消失。这就无需解复杂的广义相对论方程,无需为解复杂的场方程而设立许多假设前提,以导致最终产生奇点和许多其它的荒谬结论。[1](附注:本文只分析场方程背离真实物理世界的问题,不涉及诸如惯性质量与引力质量等同性和所有参照系的等效性之类的抽象原理)爱因斯坦的时空统一观是一大飞跃的进步,但广义相对论方程是否符合客观世界地描绘了他的观点呢?

[张洞生. 对广义相对论方程的质疑-----2====为何解广义相对论方程会得出奇点、弗里德曼模型和史瓦西度规等结论都背离实际?====. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):40-49] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.06



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Antifungal potentials of indigenous black soap commonly used in Ibadan south-western Nigeria


Jonathan SG1, Babalola BJ1, Efuntoye MO2 and Dixon DO1


aMycology & Biotechnology Unit, Department of Botany& Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.Oyo Nigeria 2Medical Microbiology unit ,Department of Microbiology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago Iwoye.Nigeria



ABSTRACT: Antifungal potentials of indigenous black soap from Ibadan,Nigeria were investigated using seven fungal species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. proliferans, Microsporium canis, Trichophyton .sp., Aspergillus sp. and Candida albicans). All the tested pathogenic fungi were found to be susceptible to black soap samples with varying degree of zone of inhibition. Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most susceptible to Sample B at 100% concentration (22mm).T. proliferans was most susceptible to Sample B and Sample E concentration 100% and 75% respectively. M.canis was most susceptible to sample E at100% closely followed by Sample C and D at the same concentration. (16mm and 15mm). AT 75% sample D also had a high inhibitory effect on M.canis (15mm). Candida albicans was most inhibited by sample D (25mm) at 100% closely followed by the same sample at 75% (23mm).Generally C. albicans was the most susceptible fungi to the antifungal potential of the black soap sample used for this research work. Aspergillus sp. was not inhibited by sample A at 100% concentration. It was most susceptible to Sample D and E at 100% concentration (15mm). This was closely followed by sample E at 75% and Sample C at 100% (13mm), the same inhibitory effect occur for Sample D at 75% and Sample B at 100% (10mm).

[Jonathan SG, Babalola BJ, Efuntoye MO and Dixon DO. Antifungal potentials of indigenous black soap commonly used in Ibadan south-western Nigeria. Academia Arena 2013;5(7):50-55] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.07


Keywords: Black soap, agar well diffusion technique, Trichophyton Rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. proliferans, Microsporium canis, T .sp. Aspergillus sp., Candida albicans.

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The role of personality traits for academic achievement (Case Study: 412 Iranian Students)


Mousavi Ebrahim Abadi, Hossein *


University of Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences



Abstract: The personal determinants of academic achievement and success have captured the attention of many scholars for the last decades. Among other factors, personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs have proved to be important predictors of academic achievement. The present study examines the unique contribution and the pathways through which traits and academic self-efficacy beliefs are conducive to academic achievement at the end of junior and senior high school. Participants were 412 Iranian students, 196 boys and 216 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. The hypothesized relations among the variables were tested within the framework of structural equation model. As a preliminary step, we computed the correlations between each of the Big Five at times 1 and 3, junior high-school grades at time 2, and high-school grades at time 4. The correlations were partialled for the other personality dimension in order to disentangle the unique effects of each the Big Five. Preliminary analyses showed that openness and conscientiousness were the only personality traits associated with school performance. The unique contribution of extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability at times 1 and 3 were not significant.

[Mousavi Ebrahim Abadi, Hossein. The role of personality traits for academic achievement (Case Study: 412 Iranian Students). Academia Arena 2013;5(7):56-65] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.08


Key words: personality, self-efficacy, academic achievement, traits

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Modified Fermi-Gas Model to Calculate the Nuclear Quantities


 Marziyeh Reshadatiyan1, Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani 2, Fereshteh Ghasemi 3, Iraj Kazeminejad 4


1. Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khuzestan, Iran

2. Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Therapy, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, Iran

3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697, Tehran, Iran

4. Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran



Abstract: Due to the unknown nature of nuclear forces, using nuclear models for different purposes of nuclear usage, as explanation of the interactions between nuclear particles are remarkable. In this study, by introducing a density and nucleus parameterization; we modify the Fermi gas model, and calculate nuclear quantities based on the modified model. For the first time, according to properties of the nuclear density, we consider it as an error function, then, parameterize nuclear density based on the known properties of nucleus. According to the modified Fermi gas model, we calculate quantities of density, radius and find the relationship between them. Then, we calculate the surface thickness of the nucleus and the nucleus radius, average radius of the nucleus, volumetric energy, surface energy and the Coulomb energy with the Pauli correction effect, asymmetric energy of nucleons, the nuclear compressibility; binding energy is obtained using outcomes too. At last Coefficients of Binding Energy is compared with previous studies; the result of formulation and error in the Tablecurve software shows that error calculated by the program was too little so we concluded that the formula presented to calculate the nuclear energy is appropriate to interpret nuclear properties.

[Reshadatiyan M, Tahmasebi Birgani M J, Ghasemi F, Kazeminejad I. Modified Fermi-Gas Model to Calculate the Nuclear Quantities. Academ Arena 2013;5(7):66-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050713.09


Keywords: Nuclear quantities; Fermi gas model; Nucleus density; Error function.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 2, 2013. 
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