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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

 

Volume 5 - Number 1 (Cumulated No. 43), January 25, 2013, ISSN 1553-992X

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Evaluation Of Microbiological Quality And Aflatoxin Mi (AFM1) Contamination Of Milk Powder Samples

 

Sold In Nigeria Market

 

Adebayo-Tayo BC, Ofosiata UC. Ebenezer AA.

bukola_tayo@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Milk, a natural liquid food, is one of the most nutritionally complete foods, adding high-quality protein, fat, milk sugar, essential minerals, and vitamins to diet.  Milk could also be a source of contaminants such as microorganisms and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Aflatoxins are important toxins whose consumption could cause food borne diseases. The microbiological quality and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination of twenty five milk powder samples (10 brands) imported, branded and sold in Nigerian market were evaluated. The total heterotrophic, coliform, Bacilli counts ranged from 2.0 - 8.2 x101cfu/g, 1.0 - 4.0cfu/g and 3.0 – 4.1 x 101cfu/g respectively. There was no detection of Salmonella/ Shigella, Vibrio, lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus and E. coli, Yeast and mould in any samples. The bacteria isolates found in the samples were Bacillus subtilis, B. lincheniformis, B. cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris among which B. subtilis had the highest frequency of occurrence (48.8%). Fungi were also not detected in the samples. The microbial loads of the milk samples were found to be lower than the specified standard limits (102 - 103 cfu/g for bacteria) as recommended by United State Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). The AFM1 level ranged between 0.130.01y – 3.750.01a ppb (n = 25) and was found in all the samples tested. In approximately 80% of the samples, level of contamination was above the permissible concentration (0.5ppb) as specified by European Union (EU).  About 20% contain AFM1 at level below tolerance limit specified by FDA. There were significant differences (P≥0.05) in the mean values of AFM1 in the samples from the same brand. The detection of AFM1 in the milk powder samples could be of public health significance and hence there is an urgent need for concerned regulatory bodies to impose necessary measures to safeguard health of consumers. In conclusion, while the microbial load of milk powder samples did not pose public health problem, the level of AFM1 contamination called for serious attention in the country.

[Adebayo-Tayo BC., Ofosiata UC. Ebenezer AA. Evaluation of Microbiological Quality and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) Contamination of Milk Powder Samples Sold in Nigeria Market. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):1-9] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.01

 

Key words: Food-borne disease, Milk powder, B. subtilis, Aflatoxin, Nigeria.

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2

Assessing Different methods used in distance education

 

Sharareh Khodamoradi 1 and Mohammad Abedi2

 

1 Department of Agricultural Extension Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Agricultural Management, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Iran

 *Corresponding author: abedi114@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In the earlier days of distance learning, it was most common to see distance learning used for rural students who were at a distance from an educational institution. The student might watch a telecourse on a television stations, read texts, mail in assignments and then travel to the local college to take an exam. This model is still in use, but as the technology has become more sophisticated and the cost of distance learning dropped as equipment prices dropped, the use of distance education has increased. High front-end costs prevented an early widespread adoption of electronically mediated learning. Distance learning has been aggressively adopted in many areas because it can meet specific educational needs. As the concept of accountability became accepted and laws required certain courses in high school in order for students to be admitted to state colleges, telecommunications was examined as a way to provide student access to the required courses. Many rural school districts could not afford the special teachers to conduct required courses. Distance education met this need by providing courses in schools where teachers were not available or were too costly to provide for a few students. It also fulfilled a need for teacher training and staff development in locations where experts and resources were difficult to obtain. These systems link learner communities with each other and bring a wide array of experts and information to the classroom.

[Sharareh Khodamoradi and Mohammad Abedi. Assessing Different methods used in distance education. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):10-15] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.02

 

Keywords: distance education, educational methods.

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3

Differences between adult education and adult learning

 

Maryam Khodamoradi 1 , Esmaeel Ghorbani 2 , Mehran Bozorgmanesh 3 and Abbas Emami 4

 

1,2,3,4 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult education also does not have a clear definition. In Chapter One of "The Foundations of Adult Education in Canada", the author quotes Malcolm Knowles. Knowles states that the term Adult Education refers to at least three different phenomena. "...To a set of activities...to the intellectual process by means of which adults seek, or are assisted, to learn things...[and] to the social system which is made up of individuals and organizations concerned with the education of adults." Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. The field of adult education and literacy is plagued by confusion about definitions. Over the years definitions have evolved from provisions in federal law and initiatives of groups advocating particular methodologies or the needs of specific adult populations. The result is that definitions tend to merge statements about the goals to be achieved (e.g., improving the literacy of a particular population) with a particular means (e.g., adult basic education) to achieve the goal.

[Maryam Khodamoradi  , Esmaeel Ghorbani  , Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Differences between adult education and adult learning. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):16-18] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.03

 

Keywords: adult education, children education

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4

Differential Sensitivity Of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla To Organochlorine And Organophosphate Insecticide

 

Waseem Raja*1, Preeti Rathaur1, Rayees Ashiq2

 

1. Department of Biological Sciences,Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad -211007 India

2. Department of BiotechnologyBrindavan College, Banglore Universiy-Banglore-560094 India

rajawaseem26@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: The development of the intensive agriculture in our country between 1960 and 1990 totally over passed the aspect connected with the negative impact of the toxic chemical compounds on the air, water and soil. Using chemical products as nutrients, fertilizers and pesticides, we believe that we attack our safety and we must know the effects of pesticides from these compounds. Application of pesticides in the paddy fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including Azolla which are photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly towards soil fertility and crop yield. Pesticide contamination in the paddy fields has manifested into a serious global environmental concern. Present study was aimed  to study the comparative effect of two  such pesticides, a well-known species of Azolla, Azolla Microphylla were selected for their stress responses to an Organochlorine insecticide - Endosulfan, and Organophosphate insecticide-Monocrotophos with reference to their growth, Free radicals, Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. Azolla microphylla strains were adversely affected by the insecticide doses and inhibition was dose dependent. But the highest decrease was seen in case of organochlorine insecticides. Pesticide treatment with increasing doses accelerated the formation of reactive oxygen species progressively, whereby an enhanced Antioxidant enzymes and metabolites were noticed in A. microphylla. On the other hand, increased amount of proline in all the insecticide treated concentrations was indicative of stressed activities of the organisms.  In this work the effect of the insecticides on Azolla microphylla resulted in growth inhibition, a decline of physiological and biochemical activities but the highest effect was shown in case of organochlorine insecticide which is commonly used in the rice fields.

[Waseem Raja, Preeti Rathaur, Rayees Ashiq. Differential Sensitivity Of Nitrogen-Fixing, Azolla Microphylla To Organochlorine And Organophosphate Insecticide. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):19-27] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.04

 

Keywords: Biochemical metabolites, Enzymes, Pigments, Antioxidant, Free radicals.

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5

Causes Of Dropouts In Education Zone Khag District Budgam

 

Dr. M.Y. Ganai,  Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar

 

 Associate Professor Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

Ph.D Scholar Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract:  The present study has been carried on causes of dropouts in education zone Khag District Budgam. (1) Most of the schools are not accessible to people. The national policy on education and right to education had guaranteed education for all which seems far reality in this Zone. (2) Most of the schools have very less teacher student ratio, which has a direct impact on the performance of these schools. Moreover, the extracurricular activities are altogether lacking in these schools. (3) The study showed the total dropout of students from year 2010 to 2011 in two classes i.e. 6th and 7th as 61. (4) There has been very less enrollment of girls in the Schools and among girls the dropout has been high in lower classes while as the dropout among boys is higher in higher classes. (5) The Middle School Hamchipora has the highest percentage of dropouts from the class 7th to 8th in year 2010–2011. (6) Most of the dropouts were found engaged with the traditional occupation of cattle grazing in high altitude areas as cattle grazing are their traditional and one of the major livelihood options. (7) Some of the areas which are at high altitude, in most of the other areas dropouts were found to be engaged with agricultural practices. (8) It was found that many dropouts were “job card holders” under MGNREGA.

[M.Y. Ganai,  Shazia Siraj Zargar. Causes Of Dropouts In Education Zone Khag District Budgam. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):28-37] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.05

 

Key words: Dropout, Education Zone, Budgam, enrolment and middle schools.

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6

Assessment of Environmental Knowledge, Awareness and Practices of College Students in Government Sheikhul Alam Degree College Budgam, J&K

 

Dr. M.Y. Ganai,  Ms. Shazia Siraj Zargar

 

 Associate Professor Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

Ph.D Scholar Department of Education University of Kashmir, India

E-mail: showkat80ahmad@gmail.com

 

Abstract: The present study focused on the Assessment of Environmental Knowledge, Awareness and Practices of college students in Government Sheikhul Alam Degree College Budgam, J&K. Television and radio are conservation out of their interests and hobbies in watching television and listening to radio. Other sources in information are newspapers, textbooks and magazines which shows the availability of these reading materials in the school. Teachers do not integrate well environmental issues, concepts and protection and conservation practices in their daily lessons or throughout the teaching-learning process. Likewise, their parents and friends are not those environmentally-oriented citizens to share them the knowledge of protecting and conserving the environment. The students are too much exposed to information technology like internet. In the performance of students in the achievement test only two among 120 students are excellent who got the highest scores, most of them performed poor, and some performed very poor.

[M.Y. Ganai, Shazia Siraj Zargar. Assessment of Environmental Knowledge, Awareness and Practices of College Students in Government Sheikhul Alam Degree College Budgam, J&K. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):38-41] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.06

 

Key Words: Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Practices, college, Budgam Jammu and Kashmir.

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7

Adult Learning in agricultural education

 

Amirhossein Pirmoradi

 

Former Graduate Student (M. S), science and research branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

E-mail: amirhosseinpirmoradi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Your assessment process should be transparent and allow for ongoing feedback from and to the learners. Remember these adult learners want to improve their skills in managing money and are not necessarily interested in formal recognition or being ranked against their peers in the group. Where possible, presenters should emphasize from the start that no-one is going to ‘fail’ the program. Even where students are seeking formal certification of their achievement, presenters can advise that there is no competition between the learners in the group or between an individual and the topic material – it’s all achievable and everyone can make it work for them. Your program should employ methodologies so that your trainers establish a friendly, open atmosphere that shows the participants they will help them learn rather than present as ‘experts’ imparting knowledge. No-one engages well with a trainer/teacher who is just ‘showing off’ what they know. Financial services have a plethora of jargon and complicated ideas that can put many lay people off. Exposing this sort of terminology and explaining it in simple terms – or deciding whether some of it needs exposure at all – is paramount to keeping your learner’s trust and interest.

[Amirhossein Pirmoradi. Adult Learning in agricultural education. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):42-45] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.07

 

Keywords: adult learning, education

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8

The importance of Empowerment of rural women

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: However rural women play major role to produce food at all over the world, but rarely enjoy of extension services. Wherever, rural women as producers of food productions and family supervisor, have little contact with extension services organizations, so their problems and needs would reflect at extensional information feedback, rarely. Therefore agricultural research institutions wouldn’t be able to create and develop technology, suitable for their needs. Global surveys show that about 5% of total extension resources, at all over the world dedicated to programs for female farmers, but women form just 15% of extension personnel of world. Some extensional issues that traditionally belong to women, such as economy of family, are supported very little that receive just about 1% of total extension resources of agriculture.

 [Mehran Bozorgmanesh. The importance of Empowerment of rural women. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):46-50] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.08

 

Keywords: empowerment, rural women.

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9

存在量子三旋的磁性状态自旋液体

---非线性希格斯粒子数学讨论(10

 

平角

 

Recommended by Zhang Dongsheng, ZDS@Outlook.com

 

摘要:三旋中的线旋,本身就是一种缠结现象,能为多主体系统内的量子缠结打开一扇窗。目前这种新物质研究成果更有助于改变电脑的数据存储方式,或改进用之于“远距离缠结”的怪异量子通讯现象。由于三旋研究成果早已用于高温超导体研发,接着这一新进展,三旋自手术理论也能够描述“herbertsmithite”观测到的现象。

[平角. 存在量子三旋的磁性状态自旋液体---非线性希格斯粒子数学讨论(10. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):51-54] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.09

 

关键词:第三次超弦革命, 液态自旋量子, 自手术。

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10

Application of Pleurotus ostreatus SMC as soil conditioner for the growth of soybean (Glycine max)

 

Jonathan SG1, Oyetunji OJ2 , Olawuyi OJ3  and Uwukhor PO1

 

1Mycology & Biotechnology unit2, Plant Physiology & Soil Biology unit, 3Genetics and Molecular Biology unit,

123Department of Botany& Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

gbolagadejonathan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus (an edible fungus) was used as soil conditioner for the improvement of growth of a leguminous agricultural crop (Soya bean (Glycine max). The experiment was conducted in a screen house, located behind the Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan. The experiment was laid out in a Complete Randomized Design and Replicated with six(6) treatments; 0%,10%,20%,30%,50% and 100%  Results from this investigation shows that this dicot, soybean performed well at 10% (0.6kgSMS/6kg soil) treated level on most of its agronomic characters and yield (pod no, FW and DW) parameter. It was observed that, there were seed production on the control experiment plants, but were significantly lesser  with  the SMC treated seeds/plants(p≤0.05),. However the control (soil) and Ref. Control (SMS only) produced less fruit (Pod) . It was also found that the substrate pH for growing these crops at all treatment level was increased from acidity to neutrality.  The results from these findings were discussed in relation to the usage of SMC as a possible organic fertilizer for the improvement of this leguminous crop.

[Jonathan SG, Oyetunji OJ, Olawuyi OJ and Uwukhor PO. Application of Pleurotus ostreatus SMC as soil conditioner for the growth of soybean (Glycine max). Academia Arena 2013;5(1):55-61] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.10

 

Keywords: Agricultural crops, mushroom compost, Nigeria, Pleurotus ostreatus , Soil conditioner.

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Microbiological analysis of ready to eat food (cooked rice and beans) sold among different restaurant in University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

 

Odu NN1 and Assor P2

 

1. Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2. Microbiology Technology Unit, School of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

odungozi@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study reports on the microbiological analysis of ready to eat food (cooked rice and beans) sold in University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The total colony count of ready to eat (cooked rice) ranged from 2.45x105cfu/g to 17.8x105cfu/g and 3.5x104cfu/g to 17.1x104cfu/g for ready to eat beans samples, for bacterial. The data’s revealed that bacteria isolated from both food samples collected from the restaurants in University of Port Harcourt are Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae which is mainly associated with food poisoning because of its ability to produce toxins. From the result gotten, it was indicated that these ready to eat food samples that were analyzed, did not meet the bacteriological quality standard. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in ready-to-eat foods should receive particular attention, because their presence indicates public health hazard and give warning signal for the possible occurrence of food borne intoxication. More closely supervision should be made on these restaurants around the university of Port Harcourt community by relevant authorities, and more analysis should be carried out on other food samples sold in the University of Port Harcourt community, to ensure proper food quality standard.

[Odu NN and Assor P. Microbiological analysis of ready to eat food (cooked rice and beans) sold among different restaurant in University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):62-66] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 11. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.11

 

Keywords: Microbiological analysis; food; bean; Nigeria

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Assessment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Port Harcourt, South Southern Nigeria

 

Oyeyipo, Olutimilehin Olaitan1, ⃰ and Diamreyan, Onoriode2

 

Department of  Microbiology (Medical Microbiology and Public Health Unit) , Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, P.M.B.5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

E-mail: mails4tim1@yahoo.com, drtim4real@gmail.com, +2347033395577

 

Abstract: This study investigated the prevalence and the causative organisms of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and Braithwaite Memorial Hospital (BMH), both in Port Harcourt, South Southern Nigeria. A retrospective analysis was performed on the routine prenatal screening (urine culture tests) of 9,698 women attending their first prenatal clinic visit between 1 January 2011 to 31 July 2012. They were reviewed, analyzed, and correlated with data on patients’ age, nationality, gravidity, and number of previous abortions. Of 9,698 women, only 166 (1.7%) showed significant bacterial growth, and 1,918 patients (19.8%) were reported as heavy mixed growth. The most common bacterium isolated was Escherichia coli on 88 patients (53%). In this study, low prevalence of bacteriuria among pregnant women was compared to published studies conducted in other countries. In view of the paucity of  information regarding asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, and the findings of this study, there is need to conduct a nation-wide survey to guide the revision of medical practice on a national scale in Nigeria.

[Oyeyipo, Olutimilehin Olaitan and Diamreyan, Onoriode. Assessment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Port Harcourt, South Southern Nigeria. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):67-72] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 12. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.12

 

Keywords: Prevalence, Asymptomatic bacteriuria, Prenatal screening, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

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 Distance learning tools in adult education

 

Maryam Khodamoradi 1 , Esmaeel Ghorbani 2, Mehran Bozorgmanesh 3 and Abbas Emami 4

 

1,2,3,4 Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

*Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: While there is still prejudice surrounding some distance learning, it is increasingly being accepted as an alternative to traditional classroom learning. Courses can be offered via the Internet, where students are able to interact with instructors and other students without physically being in the same room. Getting a college education can be difficult for people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Frequent trips to the restroom, exhaustion, doctor visits, and medication side effects are all barriers to the traditional college experience. What if you could get the degree without ever setting foot on a campus? You can do just that through distance or virtual learning. Distance learning has been around for a long time (we've all seen the commercials on TV).

[Maryam Khodamoradi, Esmaeel Ghorbani, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Abbas Emami. Distance learning tools in adult education. Academia Arena 2013;5(1):73-76] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 13. doi:10.7537/marsaaj050113.13

 

Keywords: adult education, distance learning.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from 12/21/2012. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
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