Volume 4 - Number 9
(Cumulated No. 39), September 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-992X
Page (online), Cover (print),
Papers, All papers in one file
Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Titles / Authors
Assessing the Impact of
reforestation on household income in Gatsibo District, Rwanda
Higher Institute of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
(ISAE); Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation; P.O. Box
210 Musanze, Rwanda; Email: email@example.com
This study was conducted in
Kiramuruzi sector, Gatsibo district, in Eastern Province of
Rwanda from July to October 2011. Its main purpose was to assess
the impact of reforestation on household income. This area is
subject to the deterioration of tree resources, poor conditions
of living and reduced income in households. Therefore, this
study is an attempt to investigate this situation. Data
collection was done through the use of a survey questionnaire
containing open and closed-ended questions. The formal and
informal interviews were conducted with 67 household’s heads
including the farmers participating in reforestation. Data were
analyzed using the Microsoft Excel and SPSS 16.0 Windows program
and statistical tests such as Friedman and Paired samples T-test
The results showed that different forms of tree growing through
reforestation provide many products and services. The wood for
cooking is the main forest product with
the low mean rank of
1.01. Concerning the impact of reforestation on the increase of
there is a
relationship between the increase
of crop production, animal breeding and annual profit from
forest products after reforestation than before where the
p-value (0.00) < α (0.05). The main challenges faced by farmers
in reforestation include the shortage
of land (86.5%), pest and diseases (89.6%), poverty (70%), poor
management practices of existing forest resources (67%) and
insufficiency of seedlings (40.3%). The reforestation is very
important source of income for farmers and it contributes to the
improvement of people’s conditions of living. Estimating
the economic input of forest products at district level is
[Nahayo A., Usabye F.
Assessing the Impact of reforestation on household income in
Gatsibo District, Rwanda. Academ Arena
2012;4(9):12-22] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Reforestation, household income, Gatsibo district, Rwanda
Immunomodulatory and prophylactic properties of some wild
SG1,,bOlawuyi OJ1 and Oluranti
Mycology & Biotechnology unit, b
Genetics & Molecular Biology unit
Department of Botany& Microbiology, University of Ibadan,
2Department of Biological Sciences, BOWEN University,
potentials of five Nigerian higher fungi – Pleurotus
tuber-regium, Pleurotus pulmonarius, Termitomyces robustus,
Fomes lignosus, Lentinus subnudus and their combination in
equal proportion (mixture extract) were investigated. The
ethanolic fungi extracts were tested on sets of albino rats (Rattus
norvegicus) infected with selected bacteria (Escherichia
coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonela typhi, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Streptococcus feacalis and Bacillus subtilis.
Extracts were orally administered at 1.0ml concentration
against 0.1ml/cfu microbial suspension intraperitoneally .
Survival rates of the experimental rats were monitored. Mixture
of these extracts exhibited significant level of prophylactic
effect against all the bacteria in the host organisms.
SG, Olawuyi OJ and Oluranti OO.
Studies on Immunomodulatory and prophylactic properties of some
wild Nigerian mushrooms.
2012;4(9):39-45] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Prophylactic, Extracts, Survival rates, Infection, Bacteria.
Dynamic Fluid Flow and Heat
Transfer in Different Micro-Channels with Numerical techniques:
Dr. A.P. Singh1 and Mohd.Ghufran Ali Siddiqui2
Dept. of Physics Hindu College Moradabad
Department of Physics, IFTM University Moradabad
In this paper we discuss these micro-fluidic systems; micro
channels have been identified to be one of the essential
elements to transport fluid within a miniature area. In addition
to connecting different chemical chambers, micro channels are
also used for reactant delivery, physical particle separation,
fluidic control, chemical mixing, and computer chips cooling. Hence, the study of fluid flow and heat transfer in micro
channels which are two essential parts of such devices, have
attracted more attentions with broad applications in both
engineering and medical problems. Heat sinks are classified into
single-phase or two-phase according to whether boiling of liquid
occurs inside the micro channels. Primary parameters that
determine the single phase and two-phase operating regimes are
heat flux through the channel wall and coolant flow rate.
Singh and Mohd. Ghufran Ali Siddiqui.
Dynamic Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Different
Micro-Channels with Numerical techniques: Case Study. Academ Arena 2012;4(9):46-47]
fluid flow, single phase or micro channels.
Growth responses of
Corchorus olitorius Lin. (Jute) to the application of SMC
as an organic fertilizer
Jonathan SG1, b Oyetunji OJ1,cOlawuyi
OJ1 and aAsemoloye MD1
Biotechnology unit, b Plant Physiology & Soil Biology
unit c Genetics & Molecular Biology unit
Department of Botany & Microbiology, University of Ibadan.
This study was carried out in a green house with the aim
of assessing the response of jute plant to the spent mushroom
compost (SMC ) application as a organic fertilizer. The potted
vegetable (jute) studied were planted in pots and harvested
after ten weeks of cultivation and it was observed that the
vegetable planted on 20% SMC soil had the best growth followed by 30%, 50%, 0% and 100% SMC respectively (in terms of plant
height, leaf number, stem girth, and leaf area). The results
obtained for biological efficiencies (B.E.) showed that 20% SMC
had the best above and below ground biomass with B.E. of 30.5%
and 32.8% followed by 30% SMC (24.8% and 23.4% B.E.) and 10% SMC
(15.9% and 13.9%), the least B.E. was 2.5 and 11% above ground
and 3.3% and 14.2 below ground of the 0 and 100% SMC plants
respectively. Moreover, the SMC was able to improve mineral
composition of this vegetable. It was observed that, phosphorus
and potassium were the best mineral elements of vegetable and mineral elements (iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus and
potassium) were observed to increase as the concentration of
the SMC in the soil increased to 100%.However, zinc decreased
with SMC treatment, while manganese concentrations increased to
30% SMC. SMC application was found to increase the soil pH by
±2. The pH values of the soil treated with SMC increased
significantly with the SMC percentages in the soil. It was found
to have increased from 4.8 to 6.7 and 7.0 in the potted plant
with the highest yield.
SG, Oyetunji OJ, Olawuyi OJ and Asemoloye. Growth responses of
Corchorus olitorius Lin. (Jute) to the application of SMC
as an organic fertilizer.
2012;4(9):48-56] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Corchorus olitorius,, biological efficiency, SMC,
biomass, organic fertilizer
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from
July 25, 2012.
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