Volume 4 - Number 7
(Cumulated No. 37), July 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-992X
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Titles / Authors
COMPARATIVE PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID
CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS METHANOL AND WATER
EXTRACTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NIGERIA
Anokwuru, C.P1., Adaramola, F.B1.,
Ogunnowo A.A1., Idigo, O.C2., Aina D.A.
Department of Basic sciences, School of Science and Technology
Babcock Univerisity Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry, Ben Carson Snr. College of Medicine,
Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria
Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Science
and Technology Babcock Univerisity Ilishan Remo, Ogun State
ABSTRACT: The comparative antioxidant activities of aqueous
methanol and water extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana,
Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Vernonia
and Solanun scabrum leaves were studied.
The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using
folin-ciocalteu method while total flavonoid content (TFC) was
determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity
was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH)
free radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The result
of the study showed that the aqueous methanol extracted more
phenols and flavonoids compared to the water extracts of the
four plant leaves. More so, the DPPH free radical inhibition of
the aqueous methanol extracts was higher than the water extracts
of all the plant leaves studied. However, only the aqueous
methanol extracts of A.wilkesiana and S.scabrum
showed higher reducing power than their corresponding water
extracts while the water extracts of C.aconitifolius and
V.amygdalina leaves showed higher reducing power compared
to their corresponding aqueous methanol extracts. In conclusion,
this study showed that aqueous methanol has a higher capacity to
extract more phenols, flavonoids and increase the free radical
scavenging activities of the plant leaves.
Adaramola, F.B., Ogunnowo A.A., Idigo, O.C., Aina D.A.
COMPARATIVE PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT
ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS METHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF FOUR
MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NIGERIA.
Academ Arena 2012;4(7):1-5] (ISSN 1553-992X).
medicinal plants, antioxidant activity, phenolic content,
flavonoid content, aqueous methanol
Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment
Oasis Medical Group. Bakersfield,
CA 93305, USA
Abstract: The origin of universe, the big bang, modern observations of
paradox phenomenon in Phantom Physics and surprisingly
accelerated peripheral galaxies①
have been the center of confusion in contemporary scientific
world. In this paper, a possible cause is discussed base on
classic physics. Since the energy in the universe is constant,
when the background temperature drops, the heat energy
transforms into a different form of energy -- that is momentum.
In space, the galaxies are the most significant masses that
gather in random movements when their speed drops (due to aging)②
and they cannot offset inter-mass attractions or gravities; on a
macro level, the mega aggregation of galaxies/matters provide
them ever-increasing heavier mass by collecting more aged
galaxies/mass/comic ray③ along
the way. On the other hand, lost matter in the background means
lost energy, which means a drop in universe background
temperature. Gigantic numbers of regional galaxies/masses will
eventually join together and reach a critical mass level or a
critical energy level that can be labeled as a blast point,
which will trigger a gigantic explosion, similar to our nuclear
reaction. The gigantic blast is also known as a big bang that
simply bombs everything within to its most primitive state. The
blast spits out those most primitive particles, which one day
will again form atoms, then molecules -- first inorganic, then
The universe is nothing but an unending cycle of merging and
collapsing first-forming a pre-blast mass/energy that triggers a
gigantic explosion when the mass/energy reaches a critical blast
point. The blast then spits out primitive particles that once
again form molecules and then form galaxies/planets. The mother
blast also fuels the mass with initial momentum/kinetic energy.
When the kinetic/momentum energy declines to certain levels,
those galaxies cannot resist the attractions of gravity. They
once again merge and collapse, then trigger another explosion;
then a new collection of galaxies will be formed, then they age,
then merge, collapse and blast again. The big bang/particle
explosion is triggered by a certain level (quantifiable) of
mass/energy. It cannot be an infinite level of mass/energy. It
is another logical call. To express this in a more organized
way, I will have to coin a new term for each part of the
universal system – Zolaxy, which is created by a single mother
blast. The Zolaxy is a family of galaxies created by a single
big blast. In other words, the galaxies of any Zolaxy should
have the same birth origin/mother bang. In the micro world of
sub atom level (Phantom Physics), any unrelated
particles/energies existing in experiment environment will
greatly alter the experiment results. Since a theoretical space
of temperature 0k has never been accomplished in any man-made
labs, I am afraid to say that none of those experiments is valid
in Phantom Physics. In other words, there is no evidence support
quantum mechanics or quantum laws.
[Edwin Zong. Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and
Environment. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):6-11] (ISSN
Key words: big bang; origin of universe; black matters; particles; time;
odds; single bang; numerous bangs; quantum
P.O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854,
We suggest a new universe model
[1-4]. The universe is infinite, but it
has a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates
motion of the entire universe. Therefore the universe is stable.
In the sun there is a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter,
which operates motion of the sun system. In the earth there is a
centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion
of the earth and the moon. In the moon there is a centre
consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the
moon. In atomic nucleus there is a centre consisting of the
tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the nucleus.
Therefore atomic nuclei are stable.
Jiang. A New Universe Model. Academ Arena
2012;4(7):12-13] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Universe; Model; infinite; matter
Chun-Xuan Jiang [蒋春暄]
P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854,
P. R. China
We find a
new gravitational formula, establish the expansion theory of the
Universe, show that gravitons can be converted into rest mass,
prove that Einstein’s gravitational mass is greater than
inertial mass, derive Newtonian gravitational formula, and prove
that tachyon is unobservable.
Jiang. A New Gravitational Formula:
Academ Arena 2012;4(7):14-18] (ISSN 1553-992X).
New; Gravitational; Formula
A Simple Mechanism for
P.O.Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P.
Gravity is a great mystery. No
one has since given any machinery. In this paper we give a
simple machinery. Gravity is the tachyon centripetal force.
Anybody may understand gravitation. Using the tardyon and
tachyon coexistence principle 
light velocity in vacuum,
velocity and tachyon
velocity. We deduce the new gravitation formula:
Jiang. A Simple Mechanism for Gravitation. Academ
Arena 2012;4(7):19-21] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Simple; Mechanism; Gravitation
New Gravitational Formula:
P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854,
P. R. China
Using two methods we deduce the new gravitational formula, In
the Universe there are two matters: (1) observable subluminal
matter called tardyon and (2) unobservable superluminal matter
called tachyon which coexist in motion. Tachyon can be converted
into tardyon, and vice versa. Tardyonic rotating motion produces
the centrifugal force, but tachyonic rotating motion produces
the centripetal force, that is gravity. In this paper using
tardyonic and tachyonic coexistence principle we find a new
Jiang. Deduce the New Gravitational Formula:
Academ Arena 2012;4(7):22-26] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Deduce; New; Gravitational Formula
Beyond the Newtonian Gravitational Theory and Overthrow the
Einstein Gravitational Theory
P.O. Box 3924,
Beijing 100854, P. R. China
Newtonian did not
explain what is gravity? Hence his theory of gravity is only a
conjecture.Einstein theory of gravitation is based on inertial
and gravitational mass are equal(the happiest thought of my
life) which does not exist. Hence his theory of gravity is a
100% wrong. Einstein
believes the tachyon does not exist,which is wrong.Physical
Review Letters and Phys.Rew published many mistakes
articles,some even won the Nobel prize.But they are not
published the tachyonic theory articles.21st century
physics is the tachyonic era. Jiang prove that the gravitational
theory is tahyonic one and deduce the new gravitational formula
including Newtonian gravitational formula (http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1205.0080v1.pdf).Physicists
do not understand and study tachyonic theory. Their research
results are almost wrong.Higgs boson,quantum information, black
hole, the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy,quarks, and
gravitational wave do not exist.
experiment> does not exist。1933年爱因斯坦说: “可是创立(广义相对论)
国外对这新引力公式评价:It is accepted
as being self-evident(它被认为不言而喻的)。本文重写1976年论文。如有人研究和合作这种理论三十年前就完成,
最有意义是报道题目: Deduction of
new gravitational formula即新引力公式推导,
Jiang. Beyond the Newtonian Gravitational Theory and
Overthrow the Einstein Gravitational Theory. Academ Arena
2012;4(7):27-32] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Newtonian; Gravitational Theory;
Einstein; Gravitational Theory
are on the Elusive Higgs and Neutrinos
P. O. Box 3924,
Beijing 100854, P. R. China
In 2012 all
eyes are on elusive Higgs thought to give all particles mass and
neutrinons may be tachyons. Both which are false and
This paper explains the behavior of the entire universe from the
smallest to the largest scales, found an equation that changed
the universe: ,
established the expansion theory of the universe without dark
matter and dark energy, and obtained the expansion acceleration:
It shows that gravity is action-at-a-distance and that a
gravitational wave is unobservable. Thus,a new universe model is
suggested that the universe has a centre consisting of the
Jiang. All Eyes are on the Elusive Higgs and Neutrinos.
Academ Arena 2012;4(7):33-40] (ISSN 1553-992X).
universe equation; the universe expansion theory
Brooklyn, New York
Academ Arena 2012;4(7):41-44] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Germination Enhancing Treatments for Conserved Seeds of
Corchorus olitorius L.
Nwosu, J.D.1* and Olosunde A.A.1
Centre for genetic Resources and Biotechnology, P.M.B 5382, Moor
Plantation, Ibadan Nigeria.
The effects of different seed
treatment methods and durations of exposure on germination of
conserved seeds of
Corchorus olitorius, a
traditional leafy vegetable consumed in many parts of Africa,
were investigated. Seeds were exposed to eight treatments (water
at room temperature, water for 17 hours, and four days, water
exposed to sunlight for 4hours, water at 100oc for 5
minutes, water at 100oc for 10 minutes, concentrated
Hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes and pre-chilling for 16 hours).
Exposure for seed soaked in water for 17 hours was the most
effective treatment for enhancing germination (93.3%), followed
by Hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes (85.0%) and water for four
days (73.3%). Other treatments were less effective. Therefore,
soaking seeds in water at room temperature for about 17 hours
may be recommended to farmers and research scientists as a
simple, cheap and very effective way of germinating conserved
seeds of Corchorus
J.D. and Olosunde A.A. Germination Enhancing Treatments for
Conserved Seeds of Corchorus olitorius L.
Seed, Conserved, Dormancy, Treatment, Exposure, Germination.
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from
June 20, 2012.
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