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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

(Academ Arena)

 学术争鸣

Volume 4 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 37), July 25, 2012, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers

 

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CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

COMPARATIVE PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS METHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NIGERIA

 

Anokwuru, C.P1., Adaramola, F.B1., Ogunnowo A.A1., Idigo, O.C2., Aina D.A. 3

 

1. Department of Basic sciences, School of Science and Technology Babcock Univerisity Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria

2. Department of Biochemistry, Ben Carson Snr. College of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria

3. Department of Biosciences and Biotechnology, School of Science and Technology Babcock Univerisity Ilishan Remo, Ogun State Nigeria

 

ABSTRACT: The comparative antioxidant activities of aqueous methanol and water extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Vernonia amygdalina and Solanun scabrum leaves were studied. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using folin-ciocalteu method while total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) free radical scavenging and reducing power activity. The result of the study showed that the aqueous methanol extracted more phenols and flavonoids compared to the water extracts of the four plant leaves. More so, the DPPH free radical inhibition of the aqueous methanol extracts was higher than the water extracts of all the plant leaves studied. However, only the aqueous methanol extracts of A.wilkesiana and S.scabrum showed higher reducing power than their corresponding water extracts while the water extracts of C.aconitifolius and V.amygdalina leaves showed higher reducing power compared to their corresponding aqueous methanol extracts. In conclusion, this study showed that aqueous methanol has a higher capacity to extract more phenols, flavonoids and increase the free radical scavenging activities of the plant leaves.

[Anokwuru, C.P., Adaramola, F.B., Ogunnowo A.A., Idigo, O.C., Aina D.A. COMPARATIVE PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS METHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NIGERIA. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):1-5] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 1

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.01

 

Keywords: medicinal plants, antioxidant activity, phenolic content, flavonoid content, aqueous methanol

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2

Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment

 

Edwin Zong

 

Oasis Medical Group. Bakersfield, CA 93305, USA

R4gomed@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The origin of universe, the big bang, modern observations of paradox phenomenon in Phantom Physics and surprisingly accelerated peripheral galaxies have been the center of confusion in contemporary scientific world. In this paper, a possible cause is discussed base on classic physics. Since the energy in the universe is constant, when the background temperature drops, the heat energy transforms into a different form of energy -- that is momentum. In space, the galaxies are the most significant masses that gather in random movements when their speed drops (due to aging) and they cannot offset inter-mass attractions or gravities; on a macro level, the mega aggregation of galaxies/matters provide them ever-increasing heavier mass by collecting more aged galaxies/mass/comic ray along the way. On the other hand, lost matter in the background means lost energy, which means a drop in universe background temperature. Gigantic numbers of regional galaxies/masses will eventually join together and reach a critical mass level or a critical energy level that can be labeled as a blast point, which will trigger a gigantic explosion, similar to our nuclear reaction. The gigantic blast is also known as a big bang that simply bombs everything within to its most primitive state. The blast spits out those most primitive particles, which one day will again form atoms, then molecules -- first inorganic, then organic. The universe is nothing but an unending cycle of merging and collapsing first-forming a pre-blast mass/energy that triggers a gigantic explosion when the mass/energy reaches a critical blast point. The blast then spits out primitive particles that once again form molecules and then form galaxies/planets. The mother blast also fuels the mass with initial momentum/kinetic energy. When the kinetic/momentum energy declines to certain levels, those galaxies cannot resist the attractions of gravity. They once again merge and collapse, then trigger another explosion; then a new collection of galaxies will be formed, then they age, then merge, collapse and blast again. The big bang/particle explosion is triggered by a certain level (quantifiable) of mass/energy. It cannot be an infinite level of mass/energy. It is another logical call. To express this in a more organized way, I will have to coin a new term for each part of the universal system – Zolaxy, which is created by a single mother blast. The Zolaxy is a family of galaxies created by a single big blast. In other words, the galaxies of any Zolaxy should have the same birth origin/mother bang. In the micro world of sub atom level (Phantom Physics), any unrelated particles/energies existing in experiment environment will greatly alter the experiment results. Since a theoretical space of temperature 0k has never been accomplished in any man-made labs, I am afraid to say that none of those experiments is valid in Phantom Physics. In other words, there is no evidence support quantum mechanics or quantum laws. [Edwin Zong. Understanding of Universe, Time, Odds and Environment. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):6-11] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 2

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.02

 

Key words: big bang; origin of universe; black matters; particles; time; odds; single bang; numerous bangs; quantum

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3

A New Universe Model

 

Chun-Xuan. Jiang

 

P.O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P.R. China

123jiangchunxuan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: We suggest a new universe model [1-4]. The universe is infinite, but it has a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the entire universe. Therefore the universe is stable. In the sun there is a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the sun system. In the earth there is a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the earth and the moon. In the moon there is a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the moon. In atomic nucleus there is a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter, which operates motion of the nucleus. Therefore atomic nuclei are stable.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. A New Universe Model. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):12-13] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 3

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.03

 

Keywords: Universe; Model; infinite; matter

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4

A New Gravitational Formula:

[一个新的引力公式]

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang [蒋春暄]

P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China

 

Abstract: We find a new gravitational formula, establish the expansion theory of the Universe, show that gravitons can be converted into rest mass, prove that Einstein’s gravitational mass is greater than inertial mass, derive Newtonian gravitational formula, and prove that tachyon is unobservable.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. A New Gravitational Formula: . Academ Arena 2012;4(7):14-18] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 4

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.04

 

Keywords: New; Gravitational; Formula

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5

A Simple Mechanism for Gravitation

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

P.O.Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China

123jiangchunxuan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Gravity is a great mystery. No one has since given any machinery. In this paper we give a simple machinery. Gravity is the tachyon centripetal force. Anybody may understand gravitation. Using the tardyon and tachyon coexistence principle [1]  1, where  is light velocity in vacuum,  tardyon velocity and  tachyon velocity. We deduce the new gravitation formula: .

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. A Simple Mechanism for Gravitation. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):19-21] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 5

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.05

 

Keywords: Simple; Mechanism; Gravitation

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6

Deduce the New Gravitational Formula:

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China

123jiangchunxuan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Using two methods we deduce the new gravitational formula, In the Universe there are two matters: (1) observable subluminal matter called tardyon and (2) unobservable superluminal matter called tachyon which coexist in motion. Tachyon can be converted into tardyon, and vice versa. Tardyonic rotating motion produces the centrifugal force, but tachyonic rotating motion produces the centripetal force, that is gravity. In this paper using tardyonic and tachyonic coexistence principle we find a new gravitational formula.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Deduce the New Gravitational Formula: . Academ Arena 2012;4(7):22-26] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 6

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.06

 

Keywords: Deduce; New; Gravitational Formula

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7

Beyond the Newtonian Gravitational Theory and Overthrow the Einstein Gravitational Theory

超越牛顿引力理论打倒爱因斯坦引力理论 (找到一个新引力公式)

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

P.O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China

123jiangchunxuan@gmail.com

 

Abstract: Newtonian did not explain what is gravity? Hence his theory of gravity is only a conjecture.Einstein theory of gravitation is based on inertial and gravitational mass are equal(the happiest thought of my life) which does not exist. Hence his theory of gravity is a 100% wrong. Einstein believes the tachyon does not exist,which is wrong.Physical Review Letters and Phys.Rew published many mistakes articles,some even won the Nobel prize.But they are not published the tachyonic theory articles.21st century physics is the tachyonic era. Jiang prove that the gravitational theory is tahyonic one and deduce the new gravitational formula including Newtonian gravitational formula (http://www.vixra.org/pdf/1205.0080v1.pdf).Physicists do not understand and study tachyonic theory. Their research results are almost wrong.Higgs boson,quantum information, black hole, the Big Bang, dark matter and dark energy,quarks, and gravitational wave do not exist. 牛顿并没有说明引力是什么?因此他的引力理论仅是一个猜想。爱因斯坦引力理论基础是惯性质量等于引力质量, 这是不成立的, 引力速度是光速, 因此他的广义相对论引力理论是100%错的,<thought experiment> does not exist1933年爱因斯坦说: “可是创立(广义相对论) 的基本原理蕴藏于数学之中, 因此, 在某种意义上来说, 我认为纯粹推理可以掌握客观现实, 这正是古人所梦想的。”20世纪所有理论物理学家沿着这思路研究物理, 例如微分几何, 从广义相对论得出黑洞暗物质暗能量, 这些都不存在。1905年爱因斯坦指出超光速不存在, 到今天国内外没有多少人研究超光速理论, 得出一个错误结果: 超光速粒子是虚质量。1975年蒋春暄建立亚光速和超光速统一理论,1976年证明引力是超光速转动产生向心力, 并得出新引力公式。牛顿引力公式是新引力公式一个特例, 国外对这新引力公式评价:It is accepted as being self-evident(它被认为不言而喻的)。本文重写1976年论文。如有人研究和合作这种理论三十年前就完成, 今天公布中国也不会有人支持, 仍不会有人承认。蒋春暄国内外都知道他, 仍遭到国内外封杀, 连蒋春暄母校北京航空航天大学不承蒋校友, 成果献给母校被拒绝, 中科院死死抓住北航不放, 派干部控制北航。这样整个中国都被中科院控制, 中国就没有任何人和单位支持蒋春暄, 完成整个中国对蒋春暄封杀, 中科院就放心了。 国内外联合起来对付蒋春暄一个人,不允许有人支持他,不允许发表他的论文, 但现在有网络, 本文巳在国外广泛传播。国外已有三个网站传播, 最有意义是报道题目: Deduction of new gravitational formula即新引力公式推导, 突引力公式.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. Beyond the Newtonian Gravitational Theory and Overthrow the Einstein Gravitational Theory. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):27-32] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 7

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.07

 

Keywords: Newtonian; Gravitational Theory; Einstein; Gravitational Theory

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8

All Eyes are on the Elusive Higgs and Neutrinos

 

Chun-Xuan Jiang

 

P. O. Box 3924, Beijing 100854, P. R. China

jcxuan@sina.com

 

Abstract: In 2012 all eyes are on elusive Higgs thought to give all particles mass and neutrinons may be tachyons. Both which are false and unobservable. This paper explains the behavior of the entire universe from the smallest to the largest scales, found an equation that changed the universe: , established the expansion theory of the universe without dark matter and dark energy, and obtained the expansion acceleration: . It shows that gravity is action-at-a-distance and that a gravitational wave is unobservable. Thus,a new universe model is suggested that the universe has a centre consisting of the tachyonic matter.

[Chun-Xuan Jiang. All Eyes are on the Elusive Higgs and Neutrinos. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):33-40] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 8

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.08

 

Keywords: universe equation; the universe expansion theory

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9

美国欧洲社会衰落与危机的根本原因及其解决方法

 

万宝

 

Brooklyn, New York 11212, USA

wanbao@gmail.com

 

摘要: 美国及欧洲发达国家制造业严重衰退、财政庞大赤字、外贸巨额逆差、就业市场低迷、货币贬值、信用危机、金融危机,希腊等国家的频临破产,等等,面临严重的危机。美欧社会衰落与危机的问题根本原因就是社会运作成本的失控,这样就导致了美欧物质生产 (财富创造) 的小数量低效率高成本及高支出。

[万宝. 美国欧洲社会衰落与危机的根本原因及其解决方法. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):41-44] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 9

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.09

 

Keywords: 美国;欧洲;衰落;社会运作成本;物质生产

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10

Germination Enhancing Treatments for Conserved Seeds of Corchorus olitorius L.

 

Nwosu, J.D.1* and Olosunde A.A.1

 

1National Centre for genetic Resources and Biotechnology, P.M.B 5382, Moor Plantation, Ibadan Nigeria.

olaraich75@yahoo.com.

 

Abstract: The effects of different seed treatment methods and durations of exposure on germination of conserved seeds of Corchorus olitorius, a traditional leafy vegetable consumed in many parts of Africa, were investigated. Seeds were exposed to eight treatments (water at room temperature, water for 17 hours, and four days, water exposed to sunlight for 4hours, water at 100oc for 5 minutes, water at 100oc for 10 minutes, concentrated Hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes and pre-chilling for 16 hours). Exposure for seed soaked in water for 17 hours was the most effective treatment for enhancing germination (93.3%), followed by Hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes (85.0%) and water for four days (73.3%). Other treatments were less effective. Therefore, soaking seeds in water at room temperature for about 17 hours may be recommended to farmers and research scientists as a simple, cheap and very effective way of germinating conserved seeds of Corchorus olitorius.

[Nwosu, J.D. and Olosunde A.A. Germination Enhancing Treatments for Conserved Seeds of Corchorus olitorius L. Academ Arena 2012;4(7):45-49] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net/academia. 10

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.10

Key words: Seed, Conserved, Dormancy, Treatment, Exposure, Germination.

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 20, 2012. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub6@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

doi:

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.01

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.02

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.03

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.04

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.05

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.06

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.07

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.08

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.09

doi:10.7537/marsaaj040712.10

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