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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

 

Volume 3 - Number 7 (Cumulated No. 25), July 25, 2011, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, aa0307

 

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Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

Distance Education for adult

 

Abbas Nikbakhsh

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

E-mail: leila11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education is education designed for learners who live at a distance from the teaching institution or education provider. It is the enrollment and study with an educational institution that provides organized, formal learning opportunities for students. Presented in a sequential and logical order, the instruction is offered wholly or primarily by distance study, through virtually any media. Historically, its predominant medium of instruction has been printed materials, although non-print media is becoming more and more popular. It may also incorporate or make use of videotapes, CD or DVD ROM’s, audio recordings, facsimiles, telephone communications, and the Internet through e-mail and Web-based delivery systems. When each lesson or segment is completed, the student makes available to the school the assigned work for correction, grading, comment, and subject matter guidance by qualified instructors. Corrected assignments are returned to the student. This exchange fosters a personalized student-instructor relationship, which is the hallmark of distance education instruction. istorically, most distance education courses were vocational in nature, but today courses are offered for academic, professional, and avocational purposes for students of all ages. There are numerous specialized programs, such as those for blind persons and for parents of small children with hearing impairments.

[Abbas Nikbakhsh. Distance Education for adult. Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):1-5] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.01

 

Keywords: Distance Education, E-learning

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2

Teachers of Adults: Methods and strategies for better teaching

 

Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

E-mail: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult who is able to recognize their needs. He is who knows what will. Refers to individual adults in their lives cross and understand their responsibilities and has accepted the role is social. Adult learners are often those that distinguish each other and have many different targets at the same time and will follow a common challenge to fulfill the goals of building self motivation vectors as educational materials to learn and use the forge. For most adults, being out of the classroom for even a few years can make going back to school intimidating. If they haven’t taken a class in decades, it’s understandable that they would have some degree of apprehension about what it will be like and how well they’ll do. It can be tough to be a rookie when you’ve been an expert in your field for many, many years. Nobody enjoys feeling foolish. Your job as a teacher of adult students includes being positive and encouraging. Patience helps too. Give your older students time to respond when you ask a question. They may need a few moments to consider their answer. Recognize the contributions they make, even when small. Give them words of encouragement whenever the opportunity arises. Most adults will rise to your expectations if you’re clear about them. A word of caution here.

[Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Teachers of Adults: Methods and strategies for better teaching. Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):6-10] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.02

 

Keywords: adult education, Teacher of Adults

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3

Indigenous knowledge and modern knowledge: implications and necessities

 

Mehdi Nazarpour

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Email: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: According to different definitions of indigenous knowledge, it is possible to count it as part of unique culture of each ecosystem or country and that is knowledge and findings which obtained through experience in order to be consistent with certain ecosystem conditions, and changed as part of social and productive culture of that society over time. This acknowledges, represent compatibility methods with nature and establishing reasonable relationship between human and his environment. And has complete harmony with principle of sustainable development, form this viewpoint. Main reason for inattention for Indigenous knowledge in third world countries is that colonist countries don't pay any attention to the peoples' knowledge and information in these countries and always have reminded the people of these colonized countries as a stubborn, superstitious and retrogressive people. On the other hand, the colonist countries attention to industrial productions and agriculture policies has caused to promote industrial and single product agriculture which will influence the Indigenous farmer's knowledge about different productions and will make it inconspicuous.

[Mehdi Nazarpour. Indigenous knowledge and modern knowledge: implications and necessities. Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):11-15] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.03

 

Keywords: indigenous knowledge, modern science

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4

Characteristics of Online Education

 

Mojtaba Sadighi

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Distance education dictates changes in behavior for both the teacher and the learner. The successful student develops persistence and skills in self-directing work. The successful distance education teacher becomes conversant with new technology and develops new instructional styles, moving from creating instruction to managing resources and students and disseminating views. Administrative and faculty support for distance education are critical to the success of this instructional method. Administrators should take note that the implementation of a distance education program may allow access to a greater number of students. However, the time and work associated with teaching at a distance exceeds the normal requirements of campus-based instruction. Students in distance education settings perform as well or better on assignments, class activities, and exams when compared to campus-based students .Nevertheless, students must maintain persistence and a clear focus to succeed in a distance learning situation. Self-direction, a passion for learning, and strong individual responsibility are important influences on achievement. There are indications that distance education works best for more mature, motivated, well-organized, and already accomplished learners.

[Mojtaba Sadighi. Characteristics of Online Education. Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):16-19] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.04

 

Keywords: Online Education, Traditional Education

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5

Different methods in distance education

 

Kobra Lashgari

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: fereshteh12150@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: enjoying and giving publicity to any of technological tools with the aim to facilitate and accelerate the training process, as well as increase the quality and quantity of knowledge quality and knowledge of a serious intelligence community needs to integrate and standardize the educational system society. Hence, considering the position and role of education in the third millennium on the basis of ICT is also a serious approach to the topic with the knowledge community centered on learning and general trends of technological tools to enjoy much of the information and Find the appropriate place in the information society Third Millennium That actually can be a global community and is without limit is undeniable-and-run. Guidance and therefore move in the direction of society should be education and technology for comprehensive pandemic done. Considering the above definitions and with the knowledge and attitudes towards the third millennium and the desirability and some weaknesses in the achievement of certain standards and dynamic structures in order to achieve a knowledge based society, there is. In the present circumstances to provide our information infrastructure development and integration inevitably link the elements and tools that they are as indicators of technology education and technology education will be remembered. In the new context of combining these two indicators comes to training facilities and a variety of tools that will provide guidance and development in information will be very effective.

[Kobra Lashgari. Different methods in distance education.Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):20-23] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.05

 

Keywords: distance education, educational methods

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6

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in rural

 

Alireza Talkhabi

 

Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

*Corresponding author: allahyari121@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Information communication technologies as itself do not change the social structure; the force for change is provided by the use of ICT in all spheres of everyday life activities. Information and knowledge we get by means of the Internet empower individuals to participate successfully in nowadays society’s life. Thus unequal opportunities to use the Internet and other ICT are tightly related to an issue of social exclusion. In rural Internet and other information communication technologies (ICT) are mainly used by young, educated, well paid and urban consumers. Elderly, low-educated, low-paid and rural residents are among those who use the Internet the least. This great group consistent with men have had active role at areas of social-economic activities and always have had major part on economic production of society. ICT is now recognized as a technological tool which can serve as a catalytic intervention in respect of transforming the lives and livelihoods of rural families. The economic and income divides between urban and rural areas can be overcome only by the technological upgradation of rural professions. In our post-modern network society they are at the risk of social exclusion. This paper is aimed at the analysis of ICT diffusion in rural communities of Lithuania, exploring the main social patterns of diffusion and characteristics of rural Internet users. The study is based on focus group discussions and questionnaire-based survey of Lithuanian rural residents. The paper discusses types of change agents involved in the processes of ICT diffusion in rural communities and the main motives for using the Internet.

[Alireza Talkhabi. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in rural. Academia Arena, 2011;3(7):24-27] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.06

 

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), rural

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7

SERUM TRACE METAL LEVELS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING A TETIARY HEALTH CENTRE IN NIGERIA

 

1Idonije B.O, 2Okogun G.R.A, 3Iribhogbe O.I, 4Ekhator C.N, 2Tijani T.T, 2Salimon A.Z and 2Omonrogieva O

 

1Department of Chemical Pathology, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, and 4Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. dridonije@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of trace element evaluation with regards to diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised. Hence, the need to assess trace element levels in diabetic patients. In this study, the plasma levels of chromium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and selenium were determined in 85 subjects which includes 45 previously diagnosed diabetic patients and 40 apparently healthy non-diabetic control subjects. Samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Plasma concentration of magnesium (11.640.96mg/L), zinc (12.09.18g/dl), chromium (65.425.44g/L) and selenium (62.227.62g/L) were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in patients with diabetic mellitus when compared with control. Conclusively diabetic mellitus is associated with a significant decrease in serum trace element levels, this is consistent with the findings of other researchers.

[Idonije B.O, Okogun G.R.A, Iribhogbe O.I, Ekhator C.N, Tijani T.T, Salimon A.Z and Omonrogieva O. Serum Trace Metal Levels in Diabetic Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Centre in Nigeria. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):28-31] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.07

 

Key Words: Trace Elements, Diabetes Mellitus, Antioxidants, Hypomagnesemia

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8

Implications of Lesson Plans in Adult education

 

1 Mojtaba Sadighi, 2 Mehran Bozorgmanesh and 3 Kobra Lashgari

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: sharif11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: In traditional programs that the principles of psychology and curriculum planning, less attention is the form of content presentation ie codification and providing books, original format and have the dominant form, while for adult content that could have valuable experience in addition to writing, other ways also be provided Affect the selection of pictures and images related to the concepts and content produced by including them. Learning activities such as activities outside the classroom, dialogue, role playing and ... Another type of content is presented. Duties are placed on the learner, a resource for developing knowledge, skills and insights he considered. Curriculum content only from the training provided to learners or not, but put together their learning through activities that can inform or does, skills and attitude to achieve. In this case, apart from learning that the assays taught learners directly to sustainable and effective learning occurs in his.

[Mojtaba Sadighi, Mehran Bozorgmanesh and Kobra Lashgari. Implications of Lesson Plans in Adult education. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):32-35] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.08

 

Keywords: adult learning, Lesson Plan

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9

Online Learning: Benefits and Requirements

 

1 Ahmad Shahidian, 2 Shohreh Goodarzi and 3 Mehran Bozorgmanesh

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: mehran11070@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Emergence and development of information societies is the consequences of industrialization. Despite the diversity of information in various forms of media in local, national and international, access, exchange and use of various information easier than last time is. Information society, a member of your buddies know that open information system in terms of geographical location and the last 25 years, organizational development, are limited. Distance learning faster than other forms of training has been. Growth factor in the economic interests of this type of educational approach, flexibility and remove the distance can be named. The methods of distance education, required for building physical education is not providing services. Teachers and trainers in this method - compared with traditional methods - and have more opportunities to more people than are being trained. In this type of teaching style of each person in each academic field, and each job can be arbitrary in time and space, trained without having to leave the house for work or business is education. This method requires that students are dispersed over long distances provides. Distance learning advantages of distance education in comparison with traditional education, the need for physical locations and training programs limited to no specific time period. In this type of teaching style, learning for life without possibility of spatial and temporal constraints for each individual there. In distance education, problems related to lack of qualified teachers and appropriate educational environment - as it posed in the traditional method of M is - is resolved. In this way the use of advanced features in digital libraries and search the various sites during the study, time and cost savings.

[Ahmad Shahidian, Shohreh Goodarzi and Mehran Bozorgmanesh. Online Learning: Benefits and Requirements. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):36-39] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.09

 

Keywords: education, online Learning

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10

Using of Distance education in adult education

 

1 Khatereh siyar, 2 Kobra Lashgari and 3 Mehdi Nazarpour

 

1, 2,3 Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran

Corresponding author: saba11085@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Adult illiteracy severely hinders the life chances of young children, undermines school reform, and limits the opportunities for postsecondary education. Despite landmark reforms in public schools, too many Kentuckians continue to drop out of school, thereby perpetuating the chronic problem of adult illiteracy. Too many young Kentucky parents are unable to read and lack the basic literacy necessary to provide the necessary stimulating, supportive family environments for young children. It is known that children’s literacy levels are strongly linked to the educational level of their parents and that children of parents who are unemployed and have not completed high school are five times more likely to drop out. To be successful, the Commonwealth’s strategies must energize and gain the commitment of all the state’s political, education, business, and civic leaders.

[Khatereh siyar, Kobra Lashgari and Mehdi Nazarpour. Using of Distance education in adult education. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):40-44] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.10

 

Keywords: Distance education, adult education

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Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Nepeta septemcrenata in Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt using Maxent

 

O. Khafaga1, E.E. Hatab2, K. Omar3*

 

1 Botany Department, Faculty of Science (Girls branch), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

2 Siwa Protectorate, the Nature Conservation Sector, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Egypt.

3 Saint Katherine Protectorate, the Nature Conservation Sector, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Egypt.

*Kariem_npe@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: Accurate modeling of geographic distributions of species is crucial to various applications in ecology and conservation. Distribution data on threatened and endangered species are often sparse and clustered making it difficult to model their suitable habitat distribution using commonly used modeling approaches. We used a novel method called maximum entropy distribution modeling or Maxent for predicting potential suitable habitat for Nepeta septemcrenata, a threatened and endangered species in Saint Katherine Protectorate (SKP), South Sinai, Egypt, using small number of occurrence records. Our objectives were to: (1) predict suitable habitat distribution for threatened herb Nepeta septemcrenata using a small number of occurrence records to inform conservation planning in Saint Katherine Protectorate; and (2) identify the environmental factors associated with N. septemcrenata habitat distribution. Results showed that the environmental variable with highest gain when used in isolation is bio19 (Precipitation of Coldest Quarter). The approach presented here appears to be quite promising in predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species with small sample records and can be an effective tool for biodiversity conservation planning, monitoring and management.

[O. Khafaga, E.E. Hatab, K. Omar. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Nepeta septemcrenata in Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt using Maxent. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):45-50] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.11

 

Key words: Maxent; Nepeta septemcrenata; Saint Katherine Protectorate; prediction; biodiversity conservation; geographical distribution.

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评庞小峰的非线性量子力学 ---- 21世纪新弦学概论(7

 

林云璀

 

摘要:《非线性量子力学》论述非常清晰:为创立非线性量子力学,庞小峰大有扳倒薛定谔之势,但全书读来却峰回路转,为实实在在发展量子力学树立了好榜样。

[林云璀. 评庞小峰的非线性量子力学----21世纪新弦学概论(7. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):51-59] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.12

 

关键词:非线性 薛定谔方程 孤子演示链

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精密结构常数1/α = hC/(2pe2) = 137.036可能会有什么含义?

 

 

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com

 

【内容摘要】。通过对狄拉克的大数1/Ln 和精密结构常数1/α 的类似对比,并对万有引力Fg 与黑洞引力 Fb作类似对比,可得出较合理的结论,1/α 可能是原子核内强力Fn与电磁力Fe之比的倍数,即1/α = Fn/Fe = 137.036.

[张洞生. 精密结构常数1/α = hC/(2pe2) = 137.036可能会有什么含义?Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):60-61] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.13

 

【关键词】。精密结构常数1/α = hC/(2pe2) = 137.;精密结构常数1/α的含义;狄拉克大数Ln

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14

Approaches To Summarize Multi Documents Using Information Extraction

 

Hari Om Sharan, Rajeev Kumar, Garima Singh, Mohammad Haroon

 

Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad (U.P.), India

 Email: rajeevphd@hotmail.com, sharan.hariom@gmail.com, haroonayme@gmail.com

 

Abstract: No one has time to read everything, yet we often have to make critical decisions based on what we are able to understand. With summaries, we can make effective decisions in less time. Thus the technology of automatic text summarization is becoming essential to deal with the problem of information overload. Text summarization is the process of extracting the most important information from a single document or from a set of documents to produce a short and information rich summary for a particular user or task. Multi-document summarization is an automatic procedure for extraction of information from multiple texts about the same topic. Most of the MDS systems have been based on an extraction method, which identifies key textual segments (e.g., sentences or paragraphs) in source documents and selects them for the summary. Multi-document summarization aims to distill the most important information from a set of documents to generate a compressed summary. In this paper we are introducing various approaches for multi document summarization using information extraction.

[Hari Om Sharan, Rajeev Kumar, Garima Singh, Mohammad Haroon. Approaches To Summarize Multi Documents Using Information Extraction. Academia Arena. 2011;3(7):62-67] (ISSN 1553-992X). http://www.sciencepub.net.

doi:10.7537/marsaaj030711.14

 

Keywords: Summarize; Multi Document; Information Extraction

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from July 5, 2011. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

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