Volume 2 - Number 8, August 30,
2010, ISSN 1553-992X
Page (online), Cover
All papers in one file
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Titles / Authors
The New Concepts to Big Bang
and to Black Holes: Both Had No Singularity at
《The fundamental defect
of the General Theory of
Relativity Equation is
that any particles in EGTR
has no thermodynamic action. It leads finally the gravitational collapse of a definite
energy-matter only go to Singularity.》
Graduated in 1957 From Beijing
University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.
【Abstract】: Right now, the
General Theory of
is almost linked together with all new physical concepts, such
as the Big Bang, black holes (BH), Singularity, zero point
energy, dark energy, N demission spaces, etc. Perhaps say it in
another way, all above new physical concepts are squeezed into
by the modern physicians as the reasonable coats in the
mainstream of physics. However, the observed facts have
demonstrated that, those new physical concepts may be illusory.
The obvious examples are singularity and the density of vacuum
energy. About 40 years ago, R. Penrose and S. Hawking discovered
Singularity losing the time-space significance in EGTR,
but there would not be any indications of singularity of
infinitely great density observed in nature. They further
derived from GTRE
that, our universe was originated from singularity, which would
certainly exist in any BHs, and even have naked singularity in
universe. They also proposed out “the hypothesis of cosmic
censorship” for explaining singularity better in nature, In
addition, according to J. Wheeler’s calculations, the density of
vacuum energy would be up to 1095g/cm3.
All above arguments are unimaginable, unrealistic and may have
no way to be observed and demonstrated forever. In this article below, author will demonstrate with Hawking’s
laws of black holes that, there would not be any singularity in
BHs, and our universe was not born from singularity or the Big
Bang of singularity at all. Singularity can only be a product
from GTRE, but impossibly appear and exist in real nature.
Arena, 2010;2(8):1-26] (ISSN 1553-992X).
General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE); singularity; black
holes (BH); big bang; Planck era; Planck particle--mp;
minimum gravitational black holes-- Mbm
Photon Orbit Of Charged Rotating Blackhole
Abstract: This article
Einstein’s mass energy equivalence relationship.
[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):27-28] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Einstein; mass energy; equivalence; blackhole
of Non Farm Income among Farm Households in South East Nigeria
Ibekwe, U.C; Eze, C.C;
Ohajianya, D.O; Orebiyi, J.S; Onyemauwa, C. S. and O.C. Korie
Department of Agricultural
Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B, 1526,
Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
Agriculture led growth played
an important role in reducing poverty and transforming the
economies of many Latin American Countries, but the same has not
yet occurred in sub –Saharan Africa. Most Countries in
Sub-Saharan Africa have not yet met the criteria for a
successful agricultural revolution. Factor productivity still
lags far behind the rest of the world. This has led to growing
doubt about the relevance of agriculture to growth and poverty
reduction in the region, especially in Nigeria. As a result the
promotion of off farm activities as part way out of poverty has
gained widespread support among development agencies. However
little policy efforts have been made to promote the off farm
sector to reduce poverty and overcome potential constraints in
counties of sub-Saharan Africa like Nigeria. Results indicate
that self employed activities dominate source of farm income.
The share of non farm income is positively correlated with
overall income. The econometric analysis show that households
with low education and infrastructure are constrained in their
ability to participate in non farm activities. Policy
implication is that barriers for disadvantaged households to
participate in better paying non farm income activities need
to be overcome to promote crop and livestock activities which
will benefit the poor more than the rich.
2010;2(8):29-33] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Key words: Farm, off farm, income, diversification, self employment, Push
Effect of instruction in
Metacognitive self-assessment strategy on Chemistry Students
self-efficacy and achievement
Jacobson Barineka Nbina, B. Viko
University of Port Harcourt
, P.O. Box 3 Choba, Rivers State
Abstract: This study examined
the effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment
strategy on senior secondary school students’ Chemistry
self-efficacy and achievement. The study also explored the
interaction effect of instruction in metacognitive self
assessment strategy and gender in their Chemistry self-efficacy
and achievement. The study was guided by five research questions
and four hypotheses. A non-equivalent control group pretest and
posttest design involving one treatment and one control group
was adopted. A total of 192 SS 2 students from Port Harcourt
Education zone were used for the study. The Self Assessment
Instructional Programme (SAIP) was developed, validated and used
for the study. Three instruments: Chemistry Achievement Test
(CAT), Self Assessment Scale (SAS) and Chemistry Self-efficacy
scale (CSS) were adopted, validated and used for data
collection. The results suggested that instruction in the
metacognitive self assessment strategy improve the students’
chemistry achievement and self-efficacy.
[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):34-43]
strategy; senior secondary school; students; Self Assessment
Instructional Programme (SAIP); Chemistry Achievement Test
(CAT); Self Assessment Scale (SAS); Chemistry Self-efficacy
Some Aspects Of
Neurometrics In Sahel Goats In Maiduguri, Nigeria
Kigir E. S.1, Kwari
H. D.1, Thilza I. B.2
Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of
The study was
done on the nerometrics of the sahel goats using a total of 14
goats between the ages of <1½-3 years. The mean brain weight
obtained was 96.14g, weight of the head, length of cerebrum,
depth of cerebrum, length of cerebellum and depth of cerebellum
were 1.19kg, 7.18cm, 3.81cm, 3.42cm and 2.77cm respectively.
Animals >2-3years have slightly higher brain values than those
<1½-2 years. The females have lower brain weight than males.
Location has no effect on the neurometrical data of the sahel
goats. The results obtained in this study can be used as a
research data for neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and
pharmacology, in animal psychiatry and in comparative studies
between breed and species. [Academia
Arena, 2010;2(8):44-47] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Brain, Sahel goat, Cerebrum, Cerebellum
Arena, 2010;2(8):48-60] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Arena, 2010;2(8):61-78] (ISSN 1553-992X).
Arena, 2010;2(8):79-83] (ISSN 1553-992X).
articles in this issue are presented as online first for
peer-review starting from June 25, 2010.
are welcome: firstname.lastname@example.org
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