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Science Journal

 

Academia Arena

 学术争鸣

Volume 2 - Number 8, August 30, 2010, ISSN 1553-992X

Cover Page (online), Cover (print), Introduction, Contents, Call for Papers, All papers in one file

Welcome to send your manuscript(s) to: editor@sciencepub.net.

CONTENTS

No.

Titles / Authors

Text

No.

1

The New Concepts to Big Bang and to Black Holes: Both Had No Singularity at All

==== Preface====

The fundamental defect of the General Theory of Relativity Equation is that any particles in EGTR has no thermodynamic action. It leads finally the gravitational collapse of a definite energy-matter only go to Singularity.

 

Dongsheng Zhang

Graduated in 1957 From Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. China.

Email: zhangds12@hotmail.com

 

Abstract: Right now, the General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE) is almost linked together with all new physical concepts, such as the Big Bang, black holes (BH), Singularity, zero point energy, dark energy, N demission spaces, etc. Perhaps say it in another way, all above new physical concepts are squeezed into GTRE by the modern physicians as the reasonable coats in the mainstream of physics. However, the observed facts have demonstrated that, those new physical concepts may be illusory. The obvious examples are singularity and the density of vacuum energy. About 40 years ago, R. Penrose and S. Hawking discovered Singularity losing the time-space significance in EGTR, but there would not be any indications of singularity of infinitely great density observed in nature. They further derived from GTRE that, our universe was originated from singularity, which would certainly exist in any BHs, and even have naked singularity in universe. They also proposed out “the hypothesis of cosmic censorship” for explaining singularity better in nature, In addition, according to J. Wheeler’s calculations, the density of vacuum energy would be up to 1095g/cm3. All above arguments are unimaginable, unrealistic and may have no way to be observed and demonstrated forever. In this article below, author will demonstrate with Hawking’s laws of black holes that, there would not be any singularity in BHs, and our universe was not born from singularity or the Big Bang of singularity at all. Singularity can only be a product from GTRE, but impossibly appear and exist in real nature. [Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):1-26] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.01

Key Words: General Theory of Relativity Equation (GTRE); singularity; black holes (BH); big bang; Planck era; Planck particle--mp; minimum gravitational black holes-- Mbm

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2

Radius Of Photon Orbit Of Charged Rotating Blackhole

 

Manjunath R

manjunathr1988@yahoo.in

 

Abstract: This article describes the Einstein’s mass energy equivalence relationship.

[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):27-28] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.02

 

Keywords: Einstein; mass energy; equivalence; blackhole

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3

Determinants of Non Farm Income among Farm Households in South East Nigeria

 

Ibekwe, U.C; Eze, C.C; Ohajianya, D.O; Orebiyi, J.S; Onyemauwa, C. S. and O.C. Korie

 

Department of Agricultural Economics, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B, 1526, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Email: csonyemauwa@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: Agriculture led growth played an important role in reducing poverty and transforming the economies of many Latin American Countries, but the same has not yet occurred in sub –Saharan Africa. Most Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have not yet met the criteria for a successful agricultural revolution. Factor productivity still lags far behind the rest of the world. This has led to growing doubt about the relevance of agriculture to growth and poverty reduction in the region, especially in Nigeria. As a result the promotion of off farm activities as part way out of poverty has gained widespread support among development agencies. However little policy efforts have been made to promote the off farm sector to reduce poverty and overcome potential constraints in counties of sub-Saharan Africa like Nigeria. Results indicate that self employed activities dominate source of farm income. The share of non farm income is positively correlated with overall income. The econometric analysis show that households with low education and infrastructure are constrained in their ability to participate in non farm activities. Policy implication is that barriers for disadvantaged households to participate in better paying non farm income activities need to be overcome to promote crop and livestock activities which will benefit the poor more than the rich. [Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):29-33] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.03

 

Key words: Farm, off farm, income, diversification, self employment, Push factors.

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4

Effect of instruction in Metacognitive self-assessment strategy on Chemistry Students self-efficacy and achievement

 

Jacobson Barineka Nbina, B. Viko

 

University of Port Harcourt , P.O. Box 3 Choba, Rivers State

drnbinajacobson@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: This study examined the effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy on senior secondary school students’ Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. The study also explored the interaction effect of instruction in metacognitive self assessment strategy and gender in their Chemistry self-efficacy and achievement. The study was guided by five research questions and four hypotheses. A non-equivalent control group pretest and posttest design involving one treatment and one control group was adopted. A total of 192 SS 2 students from Port Harcourt Education zone were used for the study. The Self Assessment Instructional Programme (SAIP) was developed, validated and used for the study. Three instruments: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT), Self Assessment Scale (SAS) and Chemistry Self-efficacy scale (CSS) were adopted, validated and used for data collection. The results suggested that instruction in the metacognitive self assessment strategy improve the students’ chemistry achievement and self-efficacy. [Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):34-43] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.04

 

Keywords: metacognitive; strategy; senior secondary school; students; Self Assessment Instructional Programme (SAIP); Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT); Self Assessment Scale (SAS); Chemistry Self-efficacy scale (CSS)

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5

Some Aspects Of Neurometrics In Sahel Goats In Maiduguri, Nigeria

 

Kigir E. S.1, Kwari H. D.1, Thilza I. B.2

 

1. Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria

2. Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

thilzathilzathilza@yahoo.com

 

Abstract: The study was done on the nerometrics of the sahel goats using a total of 14 goats between the ages of <1-3 years. The mean brain weight obtained was 96.14g, weight of the head, length of cerebrum, depth of cerebrum, length of cerebellum and depth of cerebellum were 1.19kg, 7.18cm, 3.81cm, 3.42cm and 2.77cm respectively. Animals >2-3years have slightly higher brain values than those <1-2 years. The females have lower brain weight than males. Location has no effect on the neurometrical data of the sahel goats. The results obtained in this study can be used as a research data for neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and pharmacology, in animal psychiatry and in comparative studies between breed and species. [Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):44-47] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.05

 

Key words: Brain, Sahel goat, Cerebrum, Cerebellum

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6

中国科学农村包围城市

 

李醒民

 

摘要:1、江晓原引用钱钟书先生的话说:学问本属“荒江野老屋中二三素心之人相与培养讲求之事”,原本是要清静的。他最后还说了一句大白话:对学术成果来说,并非数量越多越好。2、江晓原的另一个身份是科普作家,打比喻是他的强项:现在我们的某些管理者将办大学看成造房子,通常是事先计划好一切,工艺是现成的,材料是准备好的,按照规范和图纸操作,按照计划施工。“这是典型的工科思维方式。”江晓原特别介绍了西方对待学术的态度:在一块地里播一些种子,浇水施肥,里面会有一颗或若干颗结出果实。但事先人们并不知道哪颗种子能成长,哪颗种子会发育不良;如果其中一颗死掉了,并不意味着播种的失败,这只是一个概率的问题。所以,要资助足够数量的一批人,营造一个比较好的学术氛围,这样成果早晚会出来。[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):48-60] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.06

 

关键词:中国; 科学; 农村; 城市; 学术氛围

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弦膜圈说回采反冲力辐射原理 --- 读蒋秀夫专著《粒子波动论》

 

葛代序

 

y-tx@163.com

 

摘要:即使有人批评“讲的完全不得要领干点靠谱的事情”, 笔者也要把受到的思维训练讲出来:如果蒋秀夫先生粒子波动论的微观反冲力作用原理能够成立,且与霍金的宇宙辐射原理、郭光灿的超光速辐射原理是等价的,那么这三者结合,把蒋秀夫的反冲力作用原理称为蒋秀夫反冲力辐射原理(简称反冲力辐射),那么也许就能够用反冲力辐射弦膜圈说,回采超对称理论超伴粒子之谜、全息对称解信息丢失之谜、宇宙是自旋的极问之谜等开拓。[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):61-78] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.07

 

关键词反冲力辐射 弦膜圈说 全息对称

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8

揭秘水变烃水变油秘密

 

水成金

 

摘要:本文由作者将论坛文章投稿,揭秘水变烃水变油秘密。[Academia Arena, 2010;2(8):79-83] (ISSN 1553-992X).

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.08

 

关键词:水;烃;油;秘密

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The articles in this issue are presented as online first for peer-review starting from June 25, 2010. 
All comments are welcome: editor@sciencepub.net

For back issues of the Academia Arena, click here.

Emails: editor@sciencepub.net; sciencepub@gmail.com
Website: http://www.sciencepub.net/academia

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.01

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.02

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.03

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.04

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.05

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.06

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.07

doi:10.7537/marsaaj020810.08

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